(1789 - 1825)
Author: Felipe Pigna
Bernardo de Monteagudo was born in Tucumán on August 20, 1789, a month after the outbreak in Paris that would enter history as the French Revolution. Studied in Cordoba and then, as Mariano Moreno, Juan José Castelli, at the University of Chuquisaca (now Bolivia), where in June 1808, graduated as a lawyer, a very conservative and monarchist thesis entitled "On the Origin of society and their means of maintenance. " But dramatically, the heat of the European events that precipitated the American decision, his reading and his ideas are radical.While Napoleon invaded Spain and took prisoner Fernando VII, creating a conflict of legitimacy that will henceforth be the strongest argument for the Patriots to move the start of the march towards independence, Monteagudo wrote "Dialogue between Ferdinand and Atahualpa" a political satire in which two kings lament their lost kingdoms at the hands of the invaders. Tucuman Fernando makes him say: "The most infamous of all men living, that is, the ambitious Napoleon, the usurper Bonaparte, by deceit, snatched me from the sweet embrace of the motherland and my kingdom, and accused of crimes and falsefictitious prisoner led me to the center of France. "Atahualpa replied: "Your sorrows hurt me, more so from personal experience, I know it's immense pain sufferer who is unjustly deprived of his scepter and crown."
There appears one of the first proclamation of independence in the history of this continent: "Inhabitants of Peru, if you looked unnatural and insensitive to the day with calm and serene face of desolation and misery of your unfortunate country, wake up and the painful lethargy that have been submerged. Away the painful and deadly night of the theft, and dawns bright and clear day of freedom. Breaking the chains of slavery terrible and start to enjoy the delicious charms of independence. "
The following year, exactly on May 25, 1809, was one of the promoters of Chuquisaca rebellion against the abuses of the colonial administration and for self-government that would spark the revolution that would break a year later in Buenos Aires . At just nineteen years old, is the editor of the proclamation, which says, "So far we have tolerated this kind of exile in the very heart of our country, we have seen with indifference by more than three centuries sacrificed our freedom to despotism and primitive tyranny of an unjust usurper (refers to Spain, it is clear) that degrade the human species has perpetuated regarded as savages and slaves. We have kept a silence quite analogous to the stupidity that is attributed to us by the Spanish uneducated, suffering quietly that the merit of the Americans has always been a true sign of their humiliation and ruin. " Viceroy Cisneros ordered a violent repression carried out Nieto, from the south, and Goyeneche, from the north. Both make a real slaughter and Monteagudo goes to jail shackled to the Royal Court of Chuquisaca by the "abominable crime of disloyalty to the king's cause." Marshal Nieto had sent all available troops to fight the patriots in support of Commander Jose de Cordova. The campus was virtually helpless. Monteagudo, eager to bend to the ranks of patriots who came decided to prepare a plan to escape. Claiming to "have a snack with some ladies" in the garden adjoining the prison, won the coveted key that opened the door salida.1 Thus, the November 4, 1810, he was released, he went to Potosi, and was available to the expeditionary force, under the command of Castelli, had taken the strategic town on 25 November. The delegate of the board, who knew the young revolutionary background of Tucuman, did not hesitate in naming his secretary.
The pair began to unnerve equally realistic and Saavedra, who saw in them the "minions of robespierriano system of the French Revolution."
Monteagudo confirmed it was in the right place when he witnessed the harshness of the measures taken by the Representative and the applied following the orders of Moreno insisted: "The circumstances of being Europeans who have distinguished themselves only against our army in the last attack, causes them out of Potosi fact, going so far that it is not one in that town. "
That came on 13 December 1810, the first 53 Spanish exiles for the city of Salta. The list was put together personally by Castelli.
Upper Peru had a double connotation for men and Monteagudo and Castelli. It was undoubtedly the most formidable threat to the survival of the revolution and was the land that had been done intellectuals. It was in the classrooms and libraries in Chuquisaca, where Mariano Moreno, Bernardo de Monteagudo and Juan José Castelli had known the work of Rousseau and was on the streets and in the mines of Potosi, where they made contact with the highest grades and perverse human exploitation in these terms admitted by one of the main responsible for the slaughter, Viceroy Conde de Lemus: "The stones of Potosi and its minerals are washed in the blood of Indians and if they squeeze the money out from them was to forth more blood money. "2 There were also aware of an epic story buried by the viceroy's official: the great Tupac Amaru rebellion. It was the Indians who told them that there was a brief time of dignity and justice and keep those treasured memories as a legacy to be passed from parents to children that no one forget what the bosses dreamed that never happened.
On December 14, 1810, Castelli signed the statement condemning to death the enemies of the revolution and the main perpetrators of the massacres of Chuquisaca and La Paz, recently captured by the patriotic forces. At nine in the evening were placed in a chapel, separate rooms for destinándoseles "could prepare to die a Christian."
On day 15, in the main square of the imperial villa, between 10 and 11 hours of the morning, carried out the sentence, after reading aloud that it was the prisoners, kneeling in front of flags regiments.
Among the spectators who surrounded the scaffold, there was an anxiety that followed the development of the scene. Bernardo de Monteagudo, who had seen the massacres perpetrated by Paula Sanz Nieto just a year ago in Chuquisaca, never forget the episode that his eyes beheld:
"Oh, illustrious shadows of the worthy citizens and Gregory Lanza Victorio! 3 Oh, all ye that a rest on those lonely graves! Raise your head: I've seen atone for their crimes and have approached me with pleasure to the gallows for Sanz, Nieto and Cordova, to observe the effects of the wrath of the nation and bless it with his win "4.
Complying with the orders of the board, Castelli had begun secret talks with the chief enemy Goyeneche to seek a truce. A key part in the talks was Sunday Tristan, governor of Peace and cousin Goyeneche. Finally an armistice was signed on May 16, 1811.
As expected, the night of June 6, 1811, Goyeneche troops broke the truce: a force of 500 men attacked unexpectedly advanced to the patriot. Goyeneche claimed that they had violated the truce were our troops have been defended.
The two armies watched their weapons on each side of the river Desaguadero, near the town of Huaqui. Castelli troops, Balcarce, Viamonte and Diaz Velez, on the left, numbered 6,000 men. On the other hand, Goyeneche had collected 8,000. At 7 am on June 20, 1811 the Spanish army launched a massive stroke. The disaster was complete.
But even in defeat, those men do not give up.Maybe those endless nights of talks in the Andean valleys the plan was born politician who survived the repression morenistas expose the Patriotic Society, and is very likely that Bernardo de Monteagudo has outlined the first lines of the draft constitution more modern and fair the time and published in the Gaceta de Buenos Aires months later. It said Tucuman: The Tribune will have some executive power, much less legislation. Your obligation is only to protect the freedom, security and sacred rights of the people against the government encroachment of any corporation or individual, but giving and haciéndoselos see in their elections and meetings for which purpose, the previous permission of the Minister, may summonthe people. But the government can deny the leave, because nobody wants their encroachments are known and contradicted by the peoples, states that every three months the people gathered together on the first day of the month corresponding to deliberate on what votes it belongs according to the constitution and then you can explain what the tribunes and convenient deemed necessary by virtue of his office unless the matter is so urgent that the time required before the convening of the people, and not reached, you can do " .
Castelli was indicted and forced to get to Buenos Aires to stand trial for the defeat of Huaqui and behavior deemed "inappropriate" for the Catholic Church and the powerful of Upper Peru. No witness confirmed the charges brought by the enemies of the revolution. A notable gave Bernardo de Monteagudo the witness when asked "if loyalty to Fernando VII was attacked, seeking to induce the system of freedom, equality and independence. If Dr. Castelli knew this. "Monteagudocontestó proudly in homage to his companion: "You attacked formally illegitimate rule of the kings of Spain and Dr. Castelli sought by all direct and indirect means, spread the system of equality and independence.".
Monteagudo took over the direction of the Gaceta de Buenos Aires, where he wrote texts like the following: "I flatter myself that the fair sex will correspond to my expectations and give men the first lessons of energy and enthusiasm for our holy cause . If they do that its attractions are entitled to the homage of the young, employed the rule of its beauty in addition to the body conquer the minds of men, what progress would not make our system? ".This article earned him the challenge of Rivadavia, then secretary of the Triumvirate in these terms: "The government has not given you the powerful voice of their printing to preach the corruption of the girls." Monteagudo he founded his own newspaper on Tuesday or Free.
On January 13, 1812 part of the foundation of the Patriotic Society and begins to turn his body spread, El Grito del Sud Patriotic Society with the newly founded Rational Lodge Knights (so-called Logia Lautaro) with San Martín head involved the October 8, 1812 the overthrow of the First Triumvirate and the installation of the Second Constitutional Congress to convene the Assembly is known as the Year XIII in which will participate as deputy Monteagudo Mendoza. The Assembly adopted a series of measures that had materialized Castelli and Monteagudo in Upper Peru: the abolition of tribute from the Indians, the elimination of the Inquisition, the abolition of titles of nobility and the instruments of torture.
On January 10, 1815 publishes the newspaper The Independent, which strongly supports the policy of the Supreme Director Carlos Maria de Alvear.Upon the fall of the Director, Monteagudo is banished and travels to Europe. Reside in London, Paris and the house of Juan Larrea in Bordeaux.Could return home in 1817 when St. Martin was appointed Judge Advocate of the Army of the Andes with the rank of lieutenant colonel. Drafted the Declaration of Independence of Chile O'Higgins signed on 1 January 1818.
In early 1820, founded in Santiago newspaper El Censor of the Revolution and participated in the preparation of the liberating expedition to Peru.Worked closely with San Martin who appoint him, shortly after entering in Lima, his Minister of War and Navy and later Minister of Government and Foreign Affairs. Many of the measures taken by San Martín as the foundation of the Library of Lima and the local Patriotic Society, were driven by Monteagudo. Led to the expropriation of the wealth of Spanish enemies of the revolution: "We are not those large landowners who, together with the government absorbing all products of our soil, divided fortunes, now lives with decency a considerable portion of Americans not long had to beg under the Spanish. "
On July 25, 1822, while St. Martin was heading to Guayaquil (Ecuador today) to meet with Bolivar, was a blow to Monteagudo in Lima. The uprising was promoted by conservative sectors, which were echoed in the colonial city council and got the removal and deportation of the employee of St. Martin. Monteagudo settled for some time in Quito, after being a privileged witness of St. Martin's decision to resign from their positions and delegate control of their troops in Bolivar. The Venezuelan liberator incorporated it into his inner circle and given the task of preparing the meeting of Amphictyonic Congress to meet in Panama to realize the desired unity of Latin America. But among the people closest to Bolivar Monteagudo had important enemies, such as Secretary of the Liberator, Republican Jose Sanchez Carrio, who distrusted because he believed tucumano a monarchist. I was busy and excited at the realization of the dream of South American Confederation, when he received an anonymous saying, "Zambo Monteagudo, this will not get even." Without giving any importance to the threat, the night of January 28, 1825 was their best clothes to visit his lover, Juanita Salguero, when he was caught in front of the convent of San Juan de Dios by Ramon Moreira Lima and Candelario Espinosa , who plunged a knife into his chest. A local resident, Mariano Billinghurst, rushed to the scene and tried to help him by ordering their transfer to the convent, where he was treated by a surgeon and apothecary could do nothing to save his life.
Espinosa was arrested and interrogated Bolivar personally know who had hired him to kill Monteagudo, but the gunman kept secret.According to different versions never confirmed, the instigator of the crime was Carrió Sanchez who was poisoned shortly after.
Several years later, on April 25, 1833, San Martin wrote to his friend Mariano Alvarez, who lives in Lima, saying that he should make "... a question on which I wish I had years ago and no one true solution as you can give me, with positive data, both in character and position of employment. It is the murder of Monteagudo, has not been a single person who comes from Peru, Chile or Buenos Aires, who has not questioned about the matter, but each has given me a different version, one is attributed to Sanchez Carrio others to some Spanish, another a colonel jealous of his wife.Some say that this is covered in an impenetrable veil, in order to Bolivar himself was not free from this iniquitous claim, since the more rude regardless of their particular nature incapable of such baseness, was at his discretion if theMonteagudo presence of it would have been embarrassing, separated from her, without resorting to crime, in my opinion never committed without a particular object. "
Monteagudo, anticipating his critics contemporary and future published in La Gaceta de Buenos Aires: "I know that my intent is always a problem for some, my behavior a scandal to others and my efforts to test the concept of heroism in some, I doall too little, and I forget what Socrates said, those who serve the country should be counted happy before the high altar if not up scaffolds. "
1 original documentation held by G. René Moreno.Cf Pelliza MARIANO A., Monteagudo, his life and writings. Buenos Aires, 1880.
2 Conde de Lemus His Majesty in a Victorian Villava Rejoinder, in Ricardo Levene, Historical Essay on the Revolution of May and Mariano Moreno, Appendix, Buenos Aires, Peuser, 1960.
3 killed by revolutionaries and Paula Sanz Nieto
Bernardo Monteagudo 4: An Essay on the Revolution of the River Plate from the May 25, 1809, Mars, or Free, Buenos Aires, 1812.