Main article: Peruvian Civil War 1856-1858
Main article: Site of Arequipa and Assault
Conservatives unhappy with the prevailing liberal regime, gathered around Gen. Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco and rose against the government.
The rebellion broke out in Arequipa on October 31, 1856, where a rally was burned recently proclaimed the Constitution. From there it spread to Moquegua, Ayacucho and Piura, and then the squad bowed to the movement, among the rebels told the sailors and Lizardo Montero Miguel Grau.Leveraging its mastery of the sea, the revolutionaries made an expedition to the north, but failed in their attempt to subvert this part of Peru. Back, landed in Callao and attacked the population, April 22, 1857, attack that was rejected by the people Callao, a reward for this act, received the name of Callao Constitutional Province for defending constitutional governmentCastilla represented.
The assault of Arequipa from 6 to March 7, 1858.
The rebellion was confined to Arequipa with little chance of success. However, the people decided to stay in Arequipa rebellion. To lay siege to the city from Puno to split the government forces under General Miguel de San Román. The people from Arequipa, spontaneously formed battalions, built defenses and prepared to fight. On the outskirts of the city were bloody encounters. One, produced in Yumina the June 28, 1857, was considered a triumph by vivanquistas, although these failed to break the siege that the government would tended.Castilla decided to take personal command of the army and came by sea to the theater, after joining San Roman forces, laid siege to Arequipa.
Finally, after nine months of siege, Castilla decided to attack the city. It began on the night of March 5, 1858 and lasted until noon the next day, being extremely bloody. In Santa Rosa ditch blood flowed like water. The defenders clung tenaciously to their defenses and whole battalions were, like the "Columns Immortals", made by craftsmen, who were killed entirely without flinching. At 11 and 35 am on March 6th the army of Castile met in the Plaza de Armas of Arequipa, capping the fight.The rebellion was defeated. Vivanco fled to Chile.