First interim president (1855-1858)
After the battle of La Palma, Lima moved to an interim government with Castilla as President and liberals Pedro Galvez, Manuel Toribio Ureta Domingo Elias and as ministers, plus Miguel de San Roman general who held the War Ministry. An important step was the decree del25 March 1855, signed by Castilla and Pedro Galvez, who announced the media complete freedom of thought by means of printing, was added and the important liberal decrees the abolition of slavery andindigenous contribution.
The government called an election for the meeting of a National Convention or Congress, whose purpose would be to reform the Constitution. For the first time elections were called direct and universal suffrage: direct, because it does not elect the Electoral College, but directly to representatives of the new Congress, and universal, for all Peruvians vote without limitation, regardless of being illiterate or having no luck.
Conducted the elections, the National Convention was installed July 14, 1855 and ratified Castile as provisional president. Installed his government, Castilla, authoritarian temperament, separated from his liberal ministers and called his friends.Thus began the break with the Liberals.
[Edit] The Liberal Constitution of 1856
At the National Convention a dispute arose between the majority tense and the minority liberal conservative party of Castile. The most notable of the tribunes was José Gálvez Egúsquiza liberal.The Convention, in addition to functioning as a constituent assembly, the legislative power exercised in its entirety, dictating laws permanent and circumstances. Finally, after much debate, in October 1856 was completed to discuss the new Constitution, which was to replace the Conservative Constitution of 1839.
The Constitution of 1856, a liberal, limited the powers of the executive, setting the vacancy of the Presidency of the Republic by attacking the form of government or dissolve the Congress. Established that the presidential term would last four years and six years as in the previous Constitution, created the Council of Ministers abolished the personal privileges, abolished the death penalty established direct popular suffrage for all Peruvians who could read and write; restored the Departmental Boards and Municipalities. The Liberals failed to secure the freedom of religion and the state continued to protect the Catholic religion, not allowing the exercise of other religions, but removed the links and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, as well as tithes and offerings.
Castilla President swore this Constitution was promulgated on October 19, 1856, but expressed dissatisfaction with it, especially by decreasing the powers of the president, the situation of increasing tension between the Government and Congress.The Convention was dissolved on November 2, 1857 by a patrol of soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul Arguedas, while Castile was engaged in the siege of Arequipa, in the context of the civil war exploded last year. While Castilla condemned this act, it was clear that this situation suited him so well that once he returned to Lima that parliament is not restored.