Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho Nolasco (*Arequipa January 31, 1815 - † Chorrillos, April 3, 1893), Peruvian military and political, was Acting President of Peru on three occasions. The first time was in 1863, then 1865 and finally in 1868.Always showed its determination to deliver thecommand to the rightful. "This simple man, goodfather and a good farmer, respected rules as othermore cultured and worldly trod, and was ultimatelymore practical than the crafty and unscrupulousBiography
The son of Manuel Jose Diez Canseco Maria Mercedes Nieto and April Corbacho, belonging to the gentry arequipeña of Spanish origin. He studied at the Seminary of St. Jerome. In 1834 he joined the army to defend the interim government of General Jose Luis Orbegozo against the revolution begun by General Pedro Pablo Bermúdez and in the ranks of the Immortals Squadron went to the fighting in Miraflores and Cangallo, was promoted to lieutenant. After a year rose to lieutenant and served as aide to General Ramon Castilla, but requested withdrawal to occur intervention Bolivia (1835).
Some time later contributed to the pronouncement made in Arequipa against Peru-Bolivian Confederation, the February 20, 1839, was then welcomed to the provisions of the government headed by Agustín Gamarra restorer, he returned to duty and got their promotions to captain and sergeant graduated; and the Hussars fought the revolutionary movement at that time held in Arequipa Colonel Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco.Cash Promoted to Sergeant (1841), accompanied President Gamarra in the campaign against Bolivia, and was in the battle of Ingavi the November 18, 1841. Dead President in that action and signed the peace the following year, the competition for power in Peru led to the "military anarchy."
A command of General Domingo Nieto, Diez Canseco made served in the campaign against General Juan Crisostomo Torrico, and took part in the battle of Agua Santa (1842). Then began the constitutional revolution seconded by Nieto and Castile, which ended in triumph at the Battle of Carmen Alto (1844). He went to Lima with his battalion and was promoted to lieutenant colonel, left in 1847 to garrison the frontier with Bolivia when he was Arriagada by maneuvers of President Jose Ballivian, at the end of that mission was promoted to colonel (1848). Languished for several years as a trial judge's military department of Arequipa (1851), there was folded to the revolution under the leadership of Gen. Ramon Castilla in 1854, making the entire campaign to the battle of La Palma (5 of January 1855). He was then promoted to brigadier general and assigned to the prefecture of Arequipa, who served from October 19, 1855 to February 15, 1856.
Appointed inspector general of the Army, faced the difficult situation caused by the revolutionary movement who led General Vivanco, and exercised full authority in the departments of the center, as President Castilla assumed the direction of the operations against that revolution, which led to a bloody civil war (1856-1858).
Elected the province of La Union in 1858, then proceeded to integrate the Senate, which served as vice president in 1860. In 1862 Upon the change of government, accompanied the new president Miguel de San Roman as second vice president of the Republic. With this inauguration took office in three brief periods: 1863, 1865 and 1868.
[Edit] Acting First Presidency
Upon the death of President Miguel de San Román, April 3, 1863, were absent two vice presidents, first vice president, General Juan Antonio Pezet, was in Europe for health reasons, and second vice president, Pedro Diez Cansecowas in Arequipa. Diez Canseco undertook while traveling to Lima, discussed who should be entitled to the interim government of the nation. The heads of the garrison of the capital agreed to hand over command to Marshal Ramón Castilla, as the highest military rank. It was feared that the marshal seize the control indefinitely, but he was respectful of the law and get Diez Canseco gave the command, on April 9.
Diez Canseco acting governor until August 5, 1863, when he handed power to the first vice president, Pezet, upon his return from Europe.
[Edit] Second Interim Presidency
Pedro Diez Canseco in 1866. Photo Archive Courret.
Following the signing of the Vivanco-Pareja, January 27, 1865, there were nationwide discontent against the government of Pezet, it was considered that the treaty disgraced the nation by accepting the demands of Spain. On 28 February the same year an uprising in Arequipa Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado, who went to Puno and April 25 was proclaimed Supreme Chief. He organized an army called the "Restorer of the National Honor," with which to Cuzco and Ayacucho left, preparing to take the capital, Lima.Simultaneously, in Chiclayo (northern Peru), revolted Colonel Jose Balta, also converging their revolutionary movement toward Lima.
Diez Canseco, who was second vice president, sympathized with the rebels and published a proclamation Pezet considered seditious, so took refuge in the American legation, where he left for Chile, but with the intention of returning to overthrow Pezet. Indeed, he interrupted his journey and landed in Chalay, Drigo to Ayacucho, there took political control of the revolution, while retaining the military leadership Prado. Balta proclaimed him as "vice president in the exercise of power."
In late September meeting in Chincha two revolutionary armies, the Balta and the Prado, which amounted to a total of 10,000 men. On October 22, Prado and marched on Lima Balta.The Chilca reached 27 and then to Lurin, where they camped. Prado joined by Chorrillos, reached the foot of the old walls and entered the home of Guadalupe (now first blocks of Paseo de la República). Lima's defense was very weak.Government Palace fell after a violent six-hour battle. The pillaging mob intervened and was at the time that part of the file palace caught fire. Pezet, who still had an army, refused to give battle and retreated, taking refuge in a British corvette anchored in Callao.
Vice President Diez Canseco triumphantly entered the Palace on November 6, 1865. During his tenure interim, it would be very short, gave the following measures:
And presidential elections called a special legislative session of Congress.
Dissolved the vanquished army.
Pezet ordered the trial, his ministers and those who had exercised public functions.
Through the Foreign Ministry demanded that the British Legation delivery Pezet, but he had already left the country.
But tough decisions adopted regarding the problem with Spain, which continued dormant. In their view, was the Congress who must decide the declaration of war and apparently wanted to buy time awaiting the arrival of new warships acquired in Europe. Given this lack of definition, on November 25 army leaders deposed Diez Canseco and the next day the people in town hall meeting in the Plaza de Armas proclaimed dictator Colonel Prado.
[Edit] Third Interim Presidency
The dictatorship of Manuel Ignacio Prado, whose greatest achievement was the successful solution of the conflict with Spain, it soon became unpopular. He proclaimed a new constitution of 1867, replacing the 1860 Constitution.
In Arequipa rose citizenship, refusing to swear the new Constitution, which was burned in the Plaza de Armas. His replacement was proclaimed the Constitution of 1860. It was September 11, 1867.As leader of the revolution was recognized by General Pedro Diez Canseco, as the second vice constitutional, according to elections in 1862, considered the last legitimate. Prado traveled south for the purpose of quelling the revolution in Arequipa, while other focus was set on revolution in the north, in Chicago, headed by Colonel José Balta. In Lima conspired Francisco Diez Canseco, brother of Peter.
Prado tried to take Arequipa, but failed and after two attempts (the last of which occurred on 27 December) decided to return to Lima with an army reduced to 1,800 men in 6000 who originally composed it. In Chiclayo also the people resisted the siege by government forces.
Prado, and return, landed at Callao on January 5, 1868. A town meeting proved popular discontent with his government, and then Prado was forced to resign in the person of its President of Council of Ministers, General Luis La Puerta, who once wanted to leave the control in the hands of the mayor of Lima, Antonio Gutiérrez de La Fuente.But on January 8 general arrived at Callao Francisco Diez Canseco, head of the political and military departments of the center, who temporarily assumed power until January 22 when he gave his brother, General Pedro Diez Canseco, who and assumed interim command a third time.
[Edit] Government Works
During this third term interim 1868, Pedro Diez Canseco made the following works:
Immediately restored the 1860 Constitution, and called for elections for President and Vice President and Congress, according to the laws of the previous polls.
He canceled all administrative acts of the dictatorship of Prado.
He hired American engineer Henry Meiggs to build the railway Mollendo to Arequipa. Diez Canseco's family has released documents showing the refusal of Peter to accept 100.000 suns perk or reward for this concession.
Francisco Bolognesi appointed as commanding general of artillery and Miguel Grau as commander of the monitor Huascar ship first arrived at Callao on February 2, 1868.
He ordered the transfer of the remains of Marshal Ramón Castilla in Lima, to make solemn funeral (20 and June 21, 1868).
Financial difficulties led him to manage home loans the consignee of the guano
Diez Canseco, a man of moral evidence, would not be renewed in power, or run for the elections called by his government, although many of the people so wished. The elections, held in April, he ran Colonel José Balta, the leader of the revolution in the north, against which he raised his bid Manuel Toribio Ureta civilian, who represented the Liberals.Another candidate, also a civilian, was Manuel Costas. Diez Canseco Balta won and gave the command, August 2, 1868.
His mission accomplished, Peter retired to private life, through respect and admiration of his countrymen Arequipa. He died in very old age and, in 1893.
His family over the years would be more linked to politics, its most prominent descendants are his grandson Victor Andres Belaunde (political and intellectual), his grandson Fernando Belaunde Terry (president twice and founder of the Popular Action party) , his grandchildren, Victor Andres Garcia Belaunde and Jose Antonio Garcia Belaunde, Foreign Minister and current political respectively, also his sister Francisca Diez-Canseco Corbacho was married to President Ramon Castilla y Marquis and the descendants of his brother Manuel Diez-Canseco Corbacho, theRaul Diez Canseco Terry policy, Javier Diez Canseco Francisco Diez Canseco and Anel Townsend Távara Diez Canseco.
↑ Basadre 1998, pg. 1297.
Basadre, George: History of the Republic of Peru.1822 - 1933, Eighth Edition, revised and enlarged.Volume 4 and 5. Published by the newspaper "La República" and the University of Lima "Ricardo Palma". Printed in Santiago, Chile, 1998.
Chirinos Soto, Henry: History of the Republic (1821-1930). Volume I. From St. Martin to Augustus B. Leguia. Lima, AFA S.A Importers Editors, 1985.
Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Encyclopedia of Peru.Third Edition. Volume 6. D'AC / RES. Lima, ESRP, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-155-3
Vargas Ugarte, Rubén: General History of Peru.Eighth and Ninth Volume. First Edition. Editor Carlos Milla Batres. Lima, Peru, 1971.