José de la Riva Agüero
|José de la Riva Agüero|
February 28, 1823 – June 23, 1823
|Preceded by||José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquess of Torre-Tagle|
|Succeeded by||Antonio José de Sucre|
|Born||May 3, 1783|
|Died||May 21, 1858 (aged 75)|
Riva Agüero was son of José De la Riva Aguero y Basso della Rovere and María Josefa Sánchez Boquete Román de Aulestia Marquess De Montealegre de Aulestia, was married with the Belgian princess Caroline Arnoldine Looz Corswarem, spent his childhood and youth in Spain, where was educated and later participated in the wars against the Napoleonic invasion. In 1809 he returned to Lima and participated in the independence cause. José de San Martínnamed him prefect of Lima in 1822. Upon the departure of San Martín and the ensuing social instability in the country, Andrés de Santa Cruz revolted against the Peruvian Congress on February 26, 1823 and forced it to elect Riva Agüero as President. Riva Agüero proclaimed himself "President of Peru", the first to use such title.
During his short government, he suffered the entry of Spanish troops into the capital and the departure of the government towards a new installation at the port of Callao. Under this situation, Riva Agüero lost all support of the Peruvian Congress, which awaited anxiously the arrival of Simón Bolivar. He was later deposed by Antonio José de Sucre. Sucre was succeeded by José Bernardo de Torre Tagle until the arrival of Simón Bolívar. Congress had been waiting for the Venezuelan "Liberator" to come to Peru and help to consolidate the Independence of the country, and was more than willing to grant him all necessary powers.
Fearing the loss of leadership, Riva Agüero sought to conciliate with the Viceroy to prevent the arrival of Bolívar, only to be arrested and accused of high treason. He was subsequently exiled to Chile. There he wrote the Memorias y documentos para la Historia de la Independencia del Perú y causas del mal éxito que ha tenido ésta (Memories and documents for the history of the independence of Peru and causes for its failure so far), one of the most important sources for the period.
During the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation Riva Agüero supported Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz, and became president of the Republic of North Peru in 1838. After its collapse, he retired from public life until his death in 1858.