Contrary to expectations, Pedro Diez Canseco did not take tough decisions regarding the problem with Spain, which went dormant. In their view, was the Congress who must decide the declaration of war and apparently wanted to buy time awaiting the arrival of new warships acquired in Europe.Given this lack of definition, on November 25, 1865 army leaders deposed Diez Canseco and the next day the people gathered in town hall in the Plaza de Armas proclaimed dictator Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado.
He immediately formed a cabinet Prado plural from liberals like Jose Galvez Egúsquiza (Army and Navy) and José María Quimper (Government), to more conservative as Manuel Pardo (Finance) and Toribio Pacheco (Foreign Affairs). Completed the Jose Simeon Tejeda cabinet in the office of Justice, Education and Welfare. It was called the "cabinet of talents" by the intellectual quality of its members.
[Edit] The war against Spain
Before the problem with Spain, the first important step was the signing of offensive and defensive alliance with Chile, December 5, 1865. The declaration of war from Peru to Spain was the January 14, 1866. On January 30, Ecuador joined the alliance of Peru and Chile, on March 22 did Bolivia. Was formed and the "Quadruple Alliance."
El Combate del Dos de Mayo del Callao.
Shares of war followed immediately. On February 7, 1866 Peruvian-Chilean fleet began retreating to the powerful Spanish fleet after the battle Abtao. In retaliation, the Spanish ships bombarded Valparaiso on March 31 and then went to Callao with the same intentions. Known of these, the port of Callao was prepared for his defense. There was fought the Battle of Dos de Mayo 1866, which was a decisive victory in Peru, because after hours of exchange of fire, the Spanish fleet retired to the island of San Lorenzo and then moved away permanently from Peruvian waters. During the fighting died heroically War Minister José Gálvez.
[Edit] Works of the Dictatorship
Dictatorship's work focused primarily on the development of the war with Spain, but also focused on other aspects. Listed below are some works and other important events that occurred during this period.
He created the department of Ica by decree of January 30, 1866.
It developed a strong international political trend of Americans support the prestige gained by the victory of May 2, 1866.
Waters of the Pacific came to warships that had been hired by the government of England Pezet: monitor Huascar and the frigate Independence, nearly a month after the battle of El Callao (May 1866). At that time Peru had the most powerful fleet in the South Pacific.
We planned to liberate Cuba and the Philippines from Spanish rule, the Allied fleet would thus become the "army of liberation." American Commodore was hired John Tucker to lead the squad, which provoked a massive protest of Peruvian officers, who were displaced by a foreigner, was counted among those Miguel Grau.In the end, due to the reluctance of the Chilean government, the plan did not materialize liberator.Notably, two sons of the president, Leoncio Prado and Grotius, enlisted to fight for the independence of Cuba and are considered heroes of the same.
The war had left Peru in a bad economic situation.Finance Minister Manuel Pardo, sought to improve public finances through a careful and austere budget, and the introduction of a system of property taxes, industry and labor. This initiative did not prosper at the refusal of the public, which was used to not pay taxes.
Through his foreign minister, Toribio Pacheco, Peru protested strongly against the war of conquest waged by the "Triple Alliance" (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) against Paraguay. In appreciation of this gesture, one of the Paraguay river ports named Pacheco
On July 28, 1866 was a decree which called for elections in October to choose a constitutional president simultaneously and a Constitutional Congress. Prado was nominated for the Presidency of the Republic and obviously triumphed.
[Edit] Interim Presidency (1867)
The Constituent Assembly was installed on February 15, 1867 and can be classified as liberal affiliations. That same day, Prado was stripped of its dictatorial authority and was designated by Congress as provisional president, as he proclaimed the constitutional president elected in the elections of October 1866. But while Prado was elected candidate in these elections, the preliminary injunction was to be an anomaly.
In defense of the Constitution of 1860, the veteran quarterback Ramon Castilla and held its final revolutionary adventure in the province of Tarapaca, where he died in the desert near Tiviliche the May 30, 1867.
[Edit] First Constitutional President (1867-68)
The Constitutional Convention of 1867 drafted a new constitution strongly liberal, even more than in 1856. It was promulgated on August 29, 1867. Two days later, on August 31, Prado was proclaimed Constitutional President. This mandate would be ephemeral.
[Edit] The revolution against Prado
The revolution broke out in Arequipa where citizens refused to swear allegiance to the Constitution of 1867, which was burned in the Plaza de Armas, 11 September 1867. The revolutionaries took up the banner of defending the Constitution of 1860. As leader of the revolution was recognized by General Pedro Diez Canseco, as the second vice constitutional, according to the 1862 elections, the last to be considered legitimate.
Prado charged power to the president of the Council of Ministers, General Luis La Puerta, October 12, and traveled south in order to quell the revolution of Arequipa. Simultaneously lit another revolutionary outbreak in the north, in Chicago, headed by Colonel José Balta.
Prado tried to take Arequipa, but failed and after two attempts (the last of which occurred on 27 December) decided to return to Lima, with a small army of 1,800 men in 6000 who originally composed it. In Chicago the people also resisted the siege by government forces.
[Edit] Resignation Prado
Returning to the capital, Prado landed in Callao on January 5, 1868. A town meeting proved popular discontent with his government, and Prado was forced to resign in the person of General Luis La Puerta. But on January 8 arrived at Callao General Francisco Diez Canseco, who temporarily assumed power until January 22 when he gave his brother, General Pedro Diez Canseco. The Constitution was restored in 1860 and elections were called in who was winner José Balta.