Peruvian Civil War was one of the longest and most violent of Peru. Not only was one amongleaders (Castilla vs. Vivanco), but also as analmost ideological struggle at the beginning was a war between liberals and conservatives, butCastilla was a moderate conservative. It was aconservative backlash against the liberal changesthat lived at that time.
The main cause was the promulgation of the Constitution of 1856, perhaps too liberal for the time, promulgated on October 19 of that year by the National Convention (Congress) who had settled the previous year. A new principles of the constitution was the abolition of the death penalty.Was introduced free education, specifically primary was reduced to 28 years of age to be representative of the people and the Congress took great strength and became almost unicameral, because there were no differences between deputies and senators.
The Grand Marshal Ramón Castilla, Provisional President of Peru at that time was against the Constitution because it severely limited the authority of the President of the Republic. The Vice-Constitution restored and created the Council of Ministers further reducing the presidential term from 6 to 4 years. Despite this, Ramón Castilla swore the constitution on October 18, 1856.
There was also a great discontent in the country for high allowances of members of the National Convention, the excessive spending on the manumission of slaves, because according to the census of 1852 there were 15 thousand slaves in Peru and had been freeing of 25 000 slaves.Another criticism was that the elections for the National Convention was dominated by free blacks and illiterate people, while civil servants were excluded from the previous regime, the threats against the Catholic Church (were prohibited from entering the Society of Jesus ) and because it had restored the Tribute Castilla Indigenous Contribution named General in March 1855.
The government of Castilla had many detractors and proof of this is the uprisings in: Arequipa (July 1855) on Islay (March 1856), in Chincha (14 April), Nauta (June 30), Trujillo ( August 15) in Tacna (September 22), in Ayacucho, Ancash and elsewhere. In Lima there was a general uprising Fermin del Castillo in the end failed and went into exile.
[Edit] The uprising in Arequipa
On October 31, 1856 began the uprising in Arequipa conservative with a popular movement led by Diego Sunday Way and farmhouses and Llosa, who two years earlier had supported the rebellion against Echenique. They invited Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco, who had returned from exile in Chile, to lead the movement. Within days, 500 men were assembled. The government sent to Arica BAP BAP Loa and Ucayali who landed 2 squadrons of hunters on horseback and half a battalion of infantry, taking his time to political prisoners accused of conspiring in Arica, imprisoned in the Highlander and Caupolicán pontoons. He also reached the Grand Marshal Miguel de San Román to take command of the forces and demanded the surrender of Arequipa on 16 November.
[Edit] Rise of the marine
On November 16, the frigate BAP Apurimac, anchored in Arica, was revolted by two young officers for Vivanco. They were Second Lieutenant Lizardo Montero and Miguel Grau Ensign, who took the ship's commander, Captain Jose Maria Salcedo, a Chilean who served in the Peruvian Navy, was on the ground in the English consul's house. The first act was to free the sailors rebel political prisoners in the hulks Castilla Caupolicán retained and Highlander in Arica.
The Apurimac and marched north to Islay rose in BAP Loa. The captain of the port of Islay, Emilio Day Seminar, Grau half-brother, went over to the rebel side. San Roman was there with the generals and Lerzundi Diez Canseco 180 gendarmes addition, withdrawing into Tacna, but 19 were found to rebel colonel Brousset with only 20 riders and 15 infants and San Román scattered fled only to Puno.
Castille said the pirate vessels to any foreign fleet (French or English) could attack and formed a naval division under the command of Captain Ignacio Mariátegui formed by the BAP BAP Tumbes and Ucayali to recover the Apurimac. But at sea rose up the Tumbes (November 27) with its commander, Lieutenant Commander Federico Alzamora and landed forces approach that was under Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado in the Chincha Islands. Sunday was appointed Admiral Valle Riestra as Commanding General of the rebel army, which had 78 officers, including five captains, was a general uprising of the marina.Were also appointed as an accountant Ricardo Palma General rebel army. As the frigate BAP Amazonas was traveling to Hong Kong, the government of Castilla was only with the steam BAP Ucayali.
The Apurimac and Arica Loa attacked on 27 November, as the garrison government, composed of 100 men, refused to provide food. They took the port causing 18 deaths, but after provisioned, retired.
The Rebel fleet took the Chincha Islands on December 28, which also captured the BAP Izcuchaca vapor and began selling guano, which financed the uprising, but not stopped the government contracts he had with French traders, British and Americans. The rebels sold to merchants of Valparaiso guano friends Vivanco.The Convention declared that act as national property theft and criminals who trade with them, besides which empowered the Executive to deal with the diplomats from Britain and France to lend their assistance if needed on custody of the guanothe islands. With the money from guano in Chile rebels bought weapons and two vapors: the Vulcan, which they called Arauco, and Peyton, renamed Lambayeque.
[Edit] The northern campaign and blockade of Callao
Ramón Castilla Executive commissioned the Council of Ministers since 1 April 1857 to take the military leadership from Vivanco.
Vivanco, having Moquegua, decided to campaign in northern Peru, where he hoped? Get the support of landowners unhappy with the abolition of slavery.Indeed, the December 12, 1856, Piura declared for Vivanco and the next day, Paita. Castilla had previously ordered steamed north Ucayali, transporting a division under General Layseca, who landed in Pacasmayo on 17 December. In those troops was Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Bolognesi.
1000 men were embarked in the Loa and Tumbes, which together with the Apurimac, began blocking the Callao from December 31, 1856. El Callao was defended by old cannons and guns of BAP Amazonas: 14 guns of 32 pounds, 6 of 68 pounds and a 110 pounds. Vivanco expected a revolt in Callao, which was to begin that day, but this never happened, rather Castilla arrived at eleven o'clock that day Chorrillos forces and Lima. On January 1, 1857, two leading boats in the Apurimac Catherine Hayes took the boat but failed in their attempt to capture the boat Teresa Terry due to gunfire from the vapor Ucayali. From January 8, the Apurimac blocked one Callao and tried to take the Ucayali 29, but it was well defended by Mariátegui and canyons of the port. This last action Mariátegui allowed to ascend to Admiral.
I knew I landed in El Loa to 400 men under Colonel Morote, but the vivanquistas in the area had receded to Pativilca Chancay, because government forces had defeated in battle and captured 24 of them. The landed at Tumbes in Casma Vivanco and he established his headquarters in Nepeña and commanded the Grand Marshal Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente to occupy Trujillo, where he arrived on January 29.Previously, Trujillo insurgents had been defeated and disbanded in combat. At the same time, General José Bustamante, revolted in favor Ayacucho de Vivanco. Another expedition dispatched by the Callejon de Huaylas Vivanco Carhuaz occupied, but was defeated in their advance on Huaraz. Piura vivanquistas was occupied by troops commanded by Colonel Manuel Gonzalez La Cotera.
Castilla also had to deal with the resignation of three of his ministers because these measures were concilatorias with the rebels, but the center of the country was pacified with an expedition led by General Pedro Diez Canseco, who defeated the rebels in Huanta (22 March). Also Layseca troops reoccupied Vivanco Trujillo and established its new headquarters in Chicago.
Mariátegui Admiral, commanding the steam Ucayali, left Callao on the night of March 18, crossing the Apurimac to surprise pirates guano islands Guañape. On 21 he faced in battle in San Jose at Tumbes and Loa schooners, which wanted to surprise to board and capture, but failed. In San Jose there were the boats and Malakof Catalina.The March 30 return the Ucayali Callao, when he had gone to the Apurimac Pisco food.
On 16 March, the government of Castilla bought the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, the steamer Santiago, which was renamed BAP Huaraz, for 111,000 pesos. This vapor transport was moving tons of registration. The April 1 left Callao on Huarás Castile and five battalions in total, two thousand armed men, landed in the April 4 Pacasmayo. Vivanco left Chicago on April 5 and persecuted by Castilla, Piura went to reinforce the troops of La Cotera and do battle, but there was a new state of affairs. Piura's neighbors had forced La Cotera to recognize the Constitution of 1856 and declared itself neutral in the Civil War. Given this defection, Vivanco retired to Paita, where the boats were Malakof Catherine and accompanied by an army of 400 men of the battalion Arequipa, Apurimac 150 men, 200 recruits Lambayeque a guerrilla and 50 riders. Shortly after the Apurimac captured near Paita to Huaraz and the rebel army embarked on two ships, spreading the word that he would attack the forces of Layseca Trujillo, leaving Paita ambadonadas to Catalina and Malakof boats.
[Edit] Intervention in the UK and Callao Attack
Since the beginning of the war, the UK government was in favor of Castile but decided not to interfere in the internal affairs of Peru. Previously it had in 1831 and 1844.
On March 15, 1857, the steamer New Granada of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company was boarded at sea by the rebel schooner Tumbes, seizing the money box that this vapor was for the army of Castile to the north, and other boxescorrespondence. Earlier, on January 8 it had addressed the steam schooner Bolivia. Admiral Bruce, head of the British fleet in the Pacific was at Callao from the start of the war, irritated by the fact, sent the corvette HMS Pearl to find the guilty, to demand an apology and refund. The Pearl found the Tumbes Loa and anchored in San Jose on March 28 and sent officers to each of them to ask for explanations. As he could not identify the perpetrators of the outrage, boarded ships to nine at night and seized them. It sent a message to Vivanco on land, but the high-sounding answer to England captain decided to send ships to Callao rebels. Britain ended up in the anchorage, close to the frigate HMS Monarch. So there was Lieutenant Commander Jose de la Haza as a representative of Vivanco (his brothers Diego and Antonio Castilla served while Peter also Vivanco), showing that the tomb was the culprit and left in command of the Loa.
Vivanco arrived at Callao on the waters of the Apurimac and Huaras on the night of April 20 with intentions of taking the port, thinking that Castile had been all his army and left him unprotected. El Callao was commanded by General José María Plaza and had the forces of the arsenal, the castle and the column Constitution and citizen militias organized quickly Plaza.
On the evening of Tuesday 21 April, the Apurimac and Huaras approached the mouth of the Rimac River and on the morning all the troops landed, they headed to the port under the command of General José Antonio Vigil and seconded by Colonels Manuel Vargas Machuca and Manuel Lopera, into the fight about five in the morning. One of the first general to die was the Plaza, taking over the government forces of General Manuel Diez Canseco. The marines landed Ucayali BAP protect the arsenal. Also killed Colonel Lopera.During the match changed sides about 40 rebels.At eight o'clock the train arrived in Lima with troop reinforcements.
The result of the attack on Callao was a complete defeat for Vivanco, who was in the Apurimac with only 25 men. At eleven o'clock on the morning of April 22 there were 70 rebels killed, 399 wounded and 23 prisoners, in addition to the generals had lost Vigil and Allende, who managed to escape, four colonels, lieutenant colonels at 4, 10 sergeant majors, 15 captains , 17 lieutenants and 16 lieutenants. Government forces had killed 50 men.That same day, the National Convention conferring on him the title of Callao Constitutional Province because they raised the banner of the constitution.
On April 26 left the Apurimac and Huaras Callao.Two days earlier, had left the corvette HMS Pearl Callao to escort the steamer Bogota of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co. that led to President Castilla accompanied by 25 officers, including Colonel La Cotera.
The Rebel fleet gathered in the Chincha Islands. It was composed of vapors Apurimac, the Loa, the Izcuchaca the Guise bergatín vapor and newly acquired Lambayeque. The latter, a steam propeller refloated in 1853, displacing 850 tons and had recently arrived from Chile, carrying rifles 1500 Islay. After this reinforcement, Vivanco decided to continue the war in Arequipa.
[Edit] The Siege of Arequipa
Main article: Site of Arequipa and Assault
[Edit] yields the square
The frigate BAP was the last ship Apurímac to surrender of the Conservative Revolution.
Many sailors were unhappy with the course the revolution had taken. Foreign Minister Manuel Ortiz de Zevallos signed an agreement with the representatives of France and the UK, Albert Henry Huet and Sullivan respectively, to the squads that these countries had in the Pacific intervene to protect the guano and protect the interests of their employers nationals. At the same time, Castilla offered to forget the past and agreed to the National Convention in accordance with the powers on May 18, signed 21. This meant that the rebel navy was at a disadvantage because foreign frigates, HMS Monarch British and French persevering, they could whisk together the Apurimac. On 22 May, the Loa, the Izuchaca the left Huaras Guise and Chincha Islands and 24 arrived at Callao, where he was Captain Pedro José Carreño who had left the Apurimac. North back in June the division of General Manuel Layseca and 12 of this month the government regain control of the Chincha Islands and steam Tumbes, the latter returned from the British squad.
[Edit] Start site Arequipa. Meeting Yumina
When he returned to Arequipa Vivanco, was well received by its citizens, upset that Castilla had intended to hire pirates to attack the fleet revolted.Vivanco While giving a speech given to understand that the war was lost, he quickly Organised an army.
Quarterback San Román had organized an army in Puno Tacna transferred to the government where he received reinforcements and more than 3 000 men started the site of Arequipa. Orders of Castile, conciliatory, were not to take the city by the force, but the besieged and surrendered to the rebels through negotiation.
The San Roman army Yumina was established in June 19 and began discussions among delegates and San Román Vivanco Paucarpata, recalling the surrender of the Chilean army in 1837. The same day negotiations ended, because although Vivanco underwent all conditions, refused to recognize the Constitution of 1856. Arequipa and the people had refused to surrender.
Vivanco attacking left San Román positions with an army of 1300 men and 500 National Guard and held the positions of Cerro Gordo and San Lucas that dominated the Yumina. On June 29 there was a strong 10-hour battle in which government forces withdrew, but also vivanquistas dropped due to lack of water. San Román next day he returned and took the high Paucarpata, but his forces had 1200 casualties in killed, wounded, prisoners and dispersed. 30 am, San Román deployed forces in a line a mile and July 1 sent a parliamentarian to propose a compromise. He retired to Quequeña where he waited to Castile.
A division, shipped the Huara and BAP BAP escorted by the Ucayali, left Callao and Arica reached on July 5. Ilo Castilla embarked on large-caliber cannons and a small force, while the main army was to Tacan by rail and 15 days later we were in Arequipa. San Román joined in the July 20 Quequeña and reorganized his army, hoping to split a General Manuel Diez Canseco that from Ayacucho, was to march to reinforce their troops.But Diez Canseco was delayed and Castilla opened because, despite being his brother.
Castilla Sachaca established his camp and that set up large-caliber guns. Init is a long siege of several months, consisting of fire day and guerrilla fighting during the night. On 30 November, the second largest Ayacucho Battalion, commanded by Lt. Andres Avelino Caceres, repulsed a force seven sweaters and push this force was reached the first streets of the city, but had to retire to hear the horns be seen in danger of being encircled. In Arequipa, the artisan Javier Sanchez formed with 300 men Column Immortals and cut the pipes to make cannons.
Urging MPs sent Castilla surrender. One was Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado, but Vivanco refused to open the letter in the envelope ProQuad was no indication the position of General. The people of Arequipa, knowing the incident, gathered and gave him the title of Marshal of Yumina ratified popular pro record (22 and January 23, 1858).
[Edit] End of Convention
During 1857, sharpened the differences between the Executive and the Convention. The Convention does not always approved proposed military promotions, the Convention called for the suspension of the general persecution of Fermín Del Castillo, arrested in July when he landed at Callao, in addition, there was a challenge to the finance minister in September.
From April 1, 1857, the executive Lima dle functions are performed by the Council of Ministers, chaired by General Manuel Raygada and integrated by Manuel Ortiz de Zevallos, Juan Manuel del Mar y Luciano Maria Cano. The Convention passed a law on October 28, ordering the Council of Ministers to appoint a commission authorized to end the civil war exists and must be approved under the Convention. Then the army was reduced and convene elections for President and Vice President.
On October 29 renewed the table, choosing as president Manuel Toribio Ureta and there would be meeting until November 2. In Lima there was a general malaise in the population because the Convention had lasted long, though its purpose was only to enact the new constitution, and because they had risen diets and reduced the civilian employees and military.
On November 2, Castilla troops battalion, commanded by Colonel Paul Arguedas dissolved the Convention. The Council of Ministers stated that he was unable to provide assurances to the Convention and although they had news from a week before the coup that prepared Arguedas, just simply send an email to Castile to communicate the facts. One of the main arguments was that the Convention Arguedas had tried to seize power from Castilla and described the behavior of weak council. Castile apologized for the attack, but neither punished nor restored the Convention.
The dissolution of the Convention was widely celebrated among vivanquistas in Arequipa.
[Edit] Conflict with U.S. diplomat
The vivanquistas continued to authorize merchants to load guano on account of the rebellion, but not only in the Chincha Islands. The BAP Tumbes, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Dueñas, captured the American ship Dorcas C. Yeaton on the high seas suspected of being chartered by the rebels to load guano on Pica Pavilion. Duenas said the jurisdiction of Peru came to the 180 miles from land. The BAP then captured Tumbes, the American boats Lizzie Thompson and Georgiana in moments that were in Punta Lobos and Pica Pavilion near Iquique. All the boats were taken to Callao (January 1858) and his captains put on trial, along with the American Sartori, vivanquistas commercial agent.
These events triggered a bitter diplomatic dispute between Clay and Foreign Minister Ortiz de Zevallos. Peru to obtain favorable opinions of American jurists, but the Secretary of State referred to the Minister Plenipotentiary in the United States, Colonel Cipriano Zegarra that Peru had to admit liability for damages and losses caused to owners and crews of the boats with indemmizaciones set by a joint commission.Coronel Zegarra not accept these conditions have and was given his passport while he was removed from the American minister in Lima, Clay. The change of government in the United States favored appeasement of the dispute. He was finally referred to arbitration of the King of Belgium in December 1862.
The boats were incorporated into the Peruvian Navy as BAP Arica, BAP and BAP General Plaza Iquique.
[Edit] The Taking of Arequipa
Each day the struggle became more intense Arequipa. On January 3, 1858, the frigate captured in Islay Apurimac a merchant steamer with officers and articles of war for the army, seeing Castilla forced to call the battalion kept in Islay to reinforce the assault on Arequipa. The Battle of Bellavista (January 13, 1858) was very strong and indecisive.The squad captured the vapor government Lambayeque.
In these circumstances, the Apurimac and traveled to Valparaiso Arauco BAP chasing the grave, but in the Chilean port, General vivanquistas Rivas had an interview with Echenique and this gave 80 000 Chilean pesos used to pay the sailors insurgents, as well many exiles boarded the Arauco Peru with a cargo of weapons. Two ships in convoy traveled to Iquique, where some men and hitches a force of 300 decided to attack Arica. Sunday February 21, rebels landed for the first time in the war in Arica.Government troops under orders of the prefect Zavala opposed great resistance, but the Apurimac began bombing the undefended harbor, firing some 200 gunshots. The fight was on the streets of the city, leaving some 200 dead and over 60 injured. Then the general went to Tacna Rivas rail while the Apurimac Montero went to Islay, remaining the Arauco Arica.
Between January 27 and February 5, 1858, the Minister Plenipotentiary of Chile, Luis Ramon Irrazabal, led negotiations for peace in Arequipa, with the approval of Castile, but met with refusal Vivanco, although the latter, required as a prerequisite peace for the final withdrawal from the political scene of Castile and himself.
On March 3 the Apurimac Islay arrived hours before the fumes of the Pacific Steam Navigation came to political exiles, who included Manuel Toribio Ureta and several former members of the National Convention. Thus blocked Castile and this was decided by an attack on Arequipa.
Castilla moved his army at midnight on March 5 to the ancient pantheon of Miraflores. On Saturday beginning March 6 attack by the Alto de San Pedro, the fight was so hard, he took a bullet to Castile glasses she watched the battle. Then the army took the water box and eleven o'clock, the strong Malakof, killing all the defenders. The armies fought house to house. The fighting was concentrated in the towers Santa Rosa and Santa Maria. At night the temple were already occupied Santa Rosa and the first trench of the name.Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Bolognesi is served by the personal physician of Castile having received two bullets in his right thigh, like Andrew.At eleven o'clock at night, Vivanco wrote a letter to Minister Irarrazaval in order to request the suspension of hostilities, which came at the hands of this at 2 am. It was useless. At dawn on Sunday 7, Castilla launched a fresh attack. In Santa Rosa ditch blood flowed like water. At 10 am were assaulted the trenches and walls of Santa Rosa, killing all members of the column immortal. at 11:35 am the battle was over and the winners will meet in the square. There were in all, both sides, about 3 thousand dead, mostly civilians Arequipa.
Vivanco hid to escape once again to Chile. Is unanimous belief that Castilla let it out.
The sailors returned rebels to obey the government in Arica on March 17, after the efforts of the prefect of Moquegua, Colonel Juan Espinosa. The rebels were paying the crew and troops, security and personal safety and freedom to leave the country or reside there. Many important marine were dropped as Lizardo Montero, Miguel Grau, Jurado de los Reyes or Luis Astete Germain.
You can not say that the rebellion was a failure, ProQuad the main objective was fulfilled to override the Constitution of 1856, although it was restored before 1839.
One of the aims of the uprising was to dissolve the National Convention. The Convention was very unpopular because of its refusal to admit the Jesuits and other objections against the clergy, had a serious confrontation with the executive and legislators charged high diets. Ultimately, it was the same Convention which issued its order, catalyzed by the civil war.
The rebel ships joined the Peruvian Navy. The Apurimac was renamed BAP Callao, due to the heroism of Callao to contain the vivanquistas, the steam propeller Lambayeque by General Lerzundi wheels and steam at Arauco was renamed BAP Sachaca.
Castilla issued 12 and March 14, 1858, two decrees abolishing the department of Arequipa, making this province. La Caja Fiscal was moved to Islay. Secretary of Castilla, Arequipa Dr. Bustamante refused to sign and was replaced by Manuel Nicolás Corpancho. But on May 13 of that year, Castile asked the Cabinet to restore the department of Arequipa and its prefecture, Superior Court and administrative offices.
The Council of Ministers called for elections for an Extraordinary Congress and for President and Vice President, according to the rules of the Constitution of 1856 and the electoral law passed by the Convention. Castilla was elected as president with 432 000 votes, followed by General Medina and Sunday 69 000 51 000 Elijah. Was elected as Vice President Juan Manuel del Mar, a former minister of Castile. The new Congress was dedicated not only to legislate but to amend the Constitution by enacting a new one in 1860, and not liberal nor conservative character, but a moderate which was valid until 1919, being the longest-lived in Peru.
Andrew A. Cáceres and Francisco Bolognesi, future commanders and heroes of the Pacific War, had outstanding participation in this civil war. Both were injured in the Taking of Arequipa.
The sons of the chiefs players, Juan Castilla y Reinaldo Vivanco die in the Battle of San Juan and Chorrillos in 1881 during the defense of Lima before the army chileno.1
Basadre, Jorge. "History of the Republic of Peru"
Valdivia, Juan Gualberto. "The revolutions of Arequipa"
Paz Soldan et al, "Historia General de Arequipa"
[Edit] Two versions of the war spilled into fiction
Maria Nieves and Bustamante. Jorge, the son of the village. Arequipa: Imprenta de la Bourse, 1892.
Matto de Turner, Clorinda. Nature. Lima: Type Litograrafía, 1891.