Carnaval de Tambobamba

Carnaval de Tambobamba

lunes, 11 de julio de 2011

Second Constitutional Presidency (1858-1862)

Second Constitutional Presidency (1858-1862)

Although the rebellion failed Vivanco in the way of facts, his intention, that is, ending the influence of the liberals in government decisions, finally prevailed. The Convention dissolved in November 1857, it was reconvened and were even sent into exile the main liberal leaders.
Castilla decided to convene an Extraordinary Congress elections and the election of the constitutional president, since he was only provisional President. He presented himself as a candidate, and the Liberals dropped to General José Miguel Medina. Conducted the elections, won Castilla. The new Congress was installed in October 1858 and proclaimed Constitutional President Castilla, with a term of four years.
The Extraordinary Congress adjourned in May 1859, announcing his reinstatement as an Ordinary Congress in July of that year. But the government thwarted this initiative, enacting elections for new representatives, who meet in the next year. Castilla argued that only about racing convene the executive to Congress.
[Edit] The Constitution of 1860 moderate
The liberal constitution of 1856 had not satisfied the country. Congress 1860, organized by Castilla, arrogated to itself the power to Constituent proceeding rapidly to discuss and amend the Constitution. There were great debates. As Conservative leader was again Bartolomé Herrera, who presided over the Congress, although the liberal side of the siblings were no longer Gálvez.
The new Constitution was promulgated on November 13, 1860. This was neither liberal nor conservative, but moderate. He established the death penalty, which returned to the system of indirect voting, set the operation of two houses of Congress, found that to be a deputy must be 25 years of age and Sen. 30; respected Municipalities, prohibited presidential reelection and endorsed the primacy of the Catholic religion.This Constitution, more sensible and realistic than previous ones, has been the longest-regulated in Peru, lasting until 1920.
A group of liberals who were in Lima, concocted several plots against Castile. On July 25, 1860 an assassination attempt on horseback, wrapped in Castile in the Plaza Mayor of Lima, making only hurt him with a shot in the arm. And on 28 November of that year, several armed civilians and a battalion of the Lima (which was taken from his headquarters under false pretenses) attacked the president's home located on the corner of Divorced and Higueras, but the troops reacted and was repulsed the attack.
[Edit] Boom guano


Loading of Chincha guano islands, around 1866.
In 1857 he broke all the brands in the sale of guano: This came to represent 83% of all state revenues. Guano became practically the sole support of the state. They began the problems with agents, who obtained large profits. As the treasury was always required money, borrowing the state ahead consignees on account of the guano that explode in the future, high-interest, which eventually would bring economic ruin to the country, being the only one rich guano transient. But for now, Peru enjoyed the guano boom.
At heights of 1860, Peru exported, as well as guano, saltpeter from Tarapacá, borax, silver, wool. Matter, however, food, clothing, furniture and luxury goods such as silks, wines and spirits.
[Edit] The educational work
Castilla enacted April 7, 1855 a new Regulation of Public Instruction, which was to last until the government of Manuel Pardo (1872-76). This regulation properly structured educational system, providing that public education had three grades: the popular, average and superior. No more so with the uncertainty that existed in this field, because until then no different education than average.
Popular education (primary) should be extended to massive and comply with the constitutional provision guaranteeing its free. He ordered the construction of school buildings, but were the means to do so, leaving much of this reform on paper.
Also, the Guadalupe School failed to provide higher education to be dedicated since then to high school or secondary, as it has been doing until now.
As for college, it was considered that the University was an organic whole consisting of five faculties: Theology, Medicine, Law, Humanities and Natural Sciences and Mathematics. It decided that the old Halls, to correspond to these powers, should be incorporated into the University. But it happened that neither the University of San Marcos and the San Carlos Convictorio (whose structure corresponded to the last three faculties) fully accepted the reform and clung to their ancient privileges. Only years later, in 1866, this reform was completed, and the Convictorio became the Faculty of Humanities and Law at the University of San Marcos.
[Edit] American politics
The international policy of Castile in the second government, as had happened in the first, was inspired by a deep feeling of American solidarity, and always attentive awareness to the pride of the motherland and the dignity of the nation. By then, the great European powers were involved in some independent American countries and the policy of Castile was to oppose these claims vigorously calling for American unity.
In the spirit of the American Union Congress affirmed in Lima in 1847, the Minister of Peru in Chile, Cipriano Coronel Zegarra, signed in Santiago de Chile, September 15, 1856, a treaty of alliance continental defense. In addition to Peru, signed the treaty Chile and Ecuador.
It was signed in Washington on November 19, 1856, under the direction of the Peruvian diplomatic representative José Joaquín de Osma, a partnership project and American confederation between Peru, Mexico, New Granada, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala, to deal European aggressions.
Helped Nicaragua, money and diplomacy to deal with the invasion of American filibuster William Walker (1856). To that end, Central America sent a diplomatic mission headed by Pedro Galvez Egúsquiza.
They helped financially to Costa Rica, also threatened by the filibuster Walker (1857).
He strongly protested against the reinstatement of Santo Domingo to the Spanish monarchy as the Protectorate (1861) and supported the war begun by the Dominicans against the invaders, inviting American countries to joint action against the Spanish occupation.
They protested against Spanish-French aggression in Mexico in 1861 and sent a mission headed by Manuel Nicolás Corpancho, to pay the Mexican people and government of Benito Juarez, all possible assistance in Peru against European aggression. When Napoleon III decided to install a throne in Mexico to Maximilian of Austria, Corpancho strongly protested and openly supported the Nationalist government of Juarez, so the usurper government forced him to leave Mexico. Corpancho died tragically during his return trip to Peru, to fire the ship he was traveling in the Gulf of Mexico.
They protested against the project in 1861 Ecuador's President Gabriel García Moreno to make his country a French protectorate, was stopped.
[Edit] Development of the Amazon
Castilla was interested in the development of the Peruvian Amazon, continuing the policy that began in his first government. This was vitally important to get Brazil free navigation on the Amazon in order to achieve an outlet to the Atlantic Ocean, since the Convention of Commerce and Navigation of 1851 had not granted such a benefit. After slow and painstaking diplomacy goal was achieved was signed with Brazil River Convention of February 22, 1858.
Allow free navigation on the Amazon, Castilla was concerned with the development of the region which gave the following measures:
He created the coastal province of Loreto (January 2, 1857) and then the Maritime and Military Department of Loreto (January 7, 1861).
He bought a fleet composed of ships river Morona, Pastaza, Napo and Putumayo rivers to patrol the Amazon.
Colony created the river from Iquitos, located in what until then was a village of huts, and began to develop into a major city in eastern Peru, created human feat in the middle of the jungle.
[Edit] National Defence
The frigate Amazon made a trip around the world.Departed from Callao on October 26, 1856, under Jose Boterín. He crossed the Pacific, skirted the coast of China, crossed the Strait of Singapore, came to Calcutta and spent four months in repairs and then circumnavigated the east and southern Africa, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, headed north, arrived at the island of St. Helena, passed near the Azores, reaching Europe, anchored in London. After steers to South America went to Rio de Janeiro, went further south to double the Strait of Magellan, and continued toward the coast of Chile, stopping at Talcahuano, where continued to Arica, and, finally, to Callao, where arrived on May 29, 1858. He sailed over 40,000 miles in 308 days and 272 days spent in port.
Improved military weaponry in its three areas: infantry, cavalry and artillery, adapting to modern technology. Was sent to Colonel Francisco Bolognesi Europe to buy guns lined, rifles and other implements of war.
Reorganized Military College orientándosele the preparation of military and civilian engineers.
Introduced brigades in the army sappers.
[Edit] War with Ecuador
In 1857, Ecuador signed an agreement with its creditors Foreclosed British territories Quijos and cinnamon, rightfully belonged to Peru, according to the Royal Decree of 1802. After several exchanges of notes, the situation was tense and it was the breaking of diplomatic relations. Castilla Congress authorized to use the war. Thanks to the overwhelmingly superior naval and land available for Peru then, Castilla did not have much problem to beat Ecuador. Blocked and occupied Guayaquil January 7, 1860, without firing a shot. On January 25 the signing of the Treaty Mapasingue, in which, essentially Ecuador recognized the validity of the Royal Decree of 1802, and therefore the Peruvian sovereignty over the territories of Quijos and cinnamon declared void the award of land madeBritish creditors and provided that within two years a special commission appointed by the two countries would proceed to draw the boundaries between the two states. Castilla was so generous that gave uniforms, shoes and weapons into the Ecuadorian army. Ecuador, however, disapproved of the Treaty as soon as he left Castile, the Peruvian Congress, and the government of San Román, also disapproved. The problem with Ecuador would last much longer, becoming a centennial issue. Castilla has been criticized for not having solved this problem then, taking everything in their favor to do so.
[Edit] Other works and important facts


Building Lima Penitentiary, considered the strongest in the capital. Photo 1875.
Creation of the Public Works Department in charge of urban and industrial progress of the country.
It completed the installation of gas lighting in Lima (1855), this being the first city in South America that was so light.
He opened the water service in Lima (1857).
The telegraph service was established in Lima and Callao, the first line set in South America (1855).
It opened the railway from Lima to Chorrillos whose station in Lima was in the former convent of the Incarnation (1858).
Central Prison was built in Lima, under the direction of Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan.Conceived as a workplace and rehabilitation, was inaugurated by the president on July 23, 1862, and has long been the strongest building in the capital.Also built several prisons in the country.
Piers were built of Callao, Chorrillos, Paita and Pisco, and the floating dock at Callao.
He founded the Union Volunteer Fire Company No. 1 Chalaca, the first of its kind in South America.(1860).
It issued the first regulation Carriages.
Improved postal system established with the postage stamps.
It opened in Lima monuments to Simon Bolivar and Christopher Columbus.
He settled the Lima Stock Exchange.
National Club was founded (1855).
It passed the Criminal Code and the Code of Public Prosecutions, the October 1, 1862, for to govern from the following year. Replaced the Spanish criminal legislation in force until then.
By law of May 24, 1861 the census was conducted in the country, resulting in a total of 2,487,916 inhabitants in 1862. Its figures for districts were published by Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan.
General Map was developed in Peru by Mariano Felipe Paz Soldan.
He created the department of Cajamarca (by decree of February 11, 1855 and ratified by Law of 30 September 1862) and the department of Piura (by Law of March 30, 1861), both broken off of the ancient department of La Libertad .
The intellectual life and, in particular, law firms were enriched in 1860 with the appearance of two books notabilis: the "Dictionary of Peruvian Law" by Francisco García Calderón Landa, and the "Treaty of Civil Law" Toribio Pacheco and Rivero.
[Edit] Elections in 1862
Upon completion in 1862 the second government of Castile, saw an acrimonious election campaign among three candidates: Marshal Miguel de San Román, Gen. Juan Antonio Pezet and Dr. Juan Manuel del Mar, the first officer had the support of government. But the fight was gone when he died Pezet Del Mar and San Román joined, agreeing to be his vice president. The Liberals also supported San Román.
Conducted the elections, was elected as president San Román, for First Vice Pezet general, and Second Vice-General Pedro Diez Canseco.
Source:wikipedia

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