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Gaucho

Gaucho

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Portrait of a gaucho fromArgentina. Photographed in Peru, 1868.
Gaucho in ring lancing contest, Buenos Aires Province

Gaucho (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈɡautʃo]) is a term commonly used to describe residents of the South American pampas, chacos, orPatagonian grasslands, found principally in parts of Argentina,Uruguay, Southern Chile, and Southern Brazil. In Brazil, Gaúcho(Portuguese pronunciation: [ɡaˈuʃu]) is also used to designate people from the state of Rio Grande do Sul in general.

The word gaucho could be described as a loose equivalent to theNorth American "cowboy" (vaquero, in Spanish). Like the North American word cowboy, Venezuelan or Colombian llanero, or Chilean huaso, or the Mexican charro, the term often connotes the 19th century more than the present day; then gauchos made up the majority of the rural population, herding cattle on the vast estancias, and practising hunting as their main economic activities. The word "gaucho" is sometimes used to refer to chimichurri, a steak sauce common to Argentina.[1]

There are several conflicting hypotheses concerning the origin of the term. It may derive from the Mapuche cauchu ("vagabond") [2] or from the Quechua huachu ("orphan"), which gives also a different word in Spanish "guacho". The first recorded uses of the term date from around the time of Argentine independence in 1816.

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[edit]History

Cattle were brought to the Pampas from Paraguay in 1580, by the colonial expedition of Juan de Garay.[3] In the 18th century, the gauderios, who lived by hunting wild cattle, were recorded, most famously by the travel writer Alonso Carrió de la Vandera, when he passed through what is now northern Argentina.[4] Commercial cattle ranching began in the second half of the 18th century.

Gauchos were generally nomadic, and lived in the Pampas, the plain that extends north fromPatagonia, bounded on the west by the Andes and extending on the east to Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. These nomadic riders lived by hunting wild cattle. Most gauchos were of Spanish and/or Portuguese and/or Amerindian (native American) ancestry. There are also gauchos of largely African or part African ancestry as well.

A Brazilian Gaúcho. Laçador Statue, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

An inconclusive genetic study conducted by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo) in 2007 detected aAmerindian with a, perhaps, stronger Spanish than Portuguese admixture in Brazilian gaúchos. A small African admixture was also found.[5] The area that is Rio Grande do Sul belonged to the Spanish Crown for over two centuries before it became a Portuguese possession in 1750 (Treaty of Madrid)[clarification needed]. The results of the study were not conclusive, and raised questions that will require further attention. The study clearly showed that their MtDNA has much stronger affinities with Amerindian MtDNA in Argentina and Uruguay than with Amerindian MtDNA from other parts of Brazil and suggests that this is probably due to genetic ancestry from the now extinct Pampean Indians (Charrúa, Minuano).[6][7]

Dramatization of a fight between gauchos. Notice the ponchos wrapped around the arms, to function as shields against stabbing.

Some gauchos were recorded as being in theFalkland Islands,[8] and have left a few Spanish words in the local dialect e.g. camp from campo.

[edit]Culture

The gaucho plays an important symbolic role in the nationalist feelings of this region, especially that of Argentina and Uruguay. The epic poem Martín Fierro byJosé Hernández (considered by some[9]the national epic of Argentina) used the gaucho as a symbol against corruption and of Argentine national tradition, pitted against Europeanising tendencies. Martín Fierro, the hero of the poem, is drafted into the Argentine military for a border war, deserts, and becomes an outlaw and fugitive. The image of the free gaucho is often contrasted to the slaves who worked the northern Brazilian lands. Further literary descriptions are found in Ricardo Güiraldes' Don Segundo Sombra.

Modern typical party of Gaúchos in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Like the North American cowboys, as discussed in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were generally reputed to be strong, honest, silent types, but proud and capable of violence when provoked. The gaucho tendency to violence over petty matters is also recognized as a typical trait. Gauchos' use of the famous "facón" (large knife generally tucked into the rear of the gaucho sash) is legendary, often associated with considerable bloodletting. Historically, the facón was typically the only eating instrument that a gaucho carried.

Also like the cowboy, as shown in Richard W. Slatta, Cowboys of the Americas, gauchos were and remain proud and great horseriders. Typically, a gaucho's horseconstituted most of what he owned in the world. During the wars of the 19th century in the Southern Cone, the cavalries on all sides were composed almost entirely of gauchos. In Argentina, gaucho armies such as that of Martín Miguel de Güemes, slowed Spanish advances. Furthermore, many caudillos relied on gaucho armies to control the Argentine provinces.

Brazilian gaucho with typical clothing on 2006 FarroupilhaParade, in Rio Grande do Sul.

The gaucho diet was composed almost entirely of beef while on the range, supplemented by yerba mate, an herbal tea-like drink rich in caffeine and nutrients. Argentine cooking draws influence from the simple but delicious recipes used in gaucho meals.

Gauchos[10] dressed quite distinctly from North American cowboys, and used bolas or boleadoras - in Portuguese boleadeiras - (three leather bound rocks tied together with approximately three feet long leather straps) in addition to the familiar "North American" lariat or riata. The typical gaucho outfit would include a poncho (which doubled as saddle blanket and also as sleeping gear), a facón (large knife), a rebenque (leather whip), and loose-fitting trousers calledbombachas, belted with a tirador, or a chiripá, a piece of cloth used in the fashion—but not the function—of a diaper. In the wintertime, gauchos wore heavy wool ponchos to protect against cold. Nowadays, working gauchos are as likely to be found in overalls and wellington boots as in their traditional dress.

Just as the disappearance of the "Wild West" of the United States altered the character and employment of "cowboys" so too did the nature of gauchos become changed[citation needed]. Those with urban and academic orientations typically continue to cling to an image of gauchos that is no longer accurate or consistent with contemporary rural realities.

[edit]Modern influences

Gaúcho is also the common denomination of the current inhabitants of the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul.

Gauchito (a boy in the Argentine colors and a gaucho hat) was the mascot for the 1978 FIFA World Cup.

[edit]In popular culture

[edit]Gallery

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Allenbrothers.com
  2. ^ Gaucho, a possible etymology.
  3. ^ (Spanish) Carlos María Gorla "La frontera bonaerense y la dinámica territorial" (in "La Frontera: realidad y representaciones", CONICET - IMHCH, Argentina)
  4. ^ Alonso Carrió de la Vandera. El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes desde Buenos Aires. p. 23.
  5. ^ Andrea Rita Marrero História genética dos gaúchos: dinâmica populacional do Sul do Brasil
  6. ^ Andrea Rita Marrero.História genética dos gaúchos: dinâmica populacional do Sul do Brasil.
  7. ^ See, for instance, Andrea Rita Marrero.História genética dos gaúchos: dinâmica populacional do Sul do Brasil, p. 115: Hybrid groups can arise from distinct admixture dynamic, (Long 1991; Parra et aI. 2001) and this applies to these two sets. Despite some local interaction between Kaingang/Guarani and the populations that surround their reservations (Marrero et aI. 2006), extensive admixture between Indians and non-Indians ended in Southern Brazil (Pampa included; Flores 2003) at least two centuries ago, whereas in northern Brazil/Amazonia the introduction of Amerindian genes into non-native urban and rural populations is probably occurring until now.
  8. ^ Falklands.info
  9. ^ Leopoldo Lugones 1 in "El Payador" (1916)2 and Ricardo Rojas 3 established the cannonical view regarding the Martín Fierro as the National Epic of Argentina. The consequences of these considerations are dicussed by Jorge Luis Borges in his essay "El Martín Fierro". An assesment of the years-long discussion here, since p. 18
  10. ^ South-images.com Photos: gauchos in Argentina, Photo library South-Images

[edit]External links


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