Carnaval de Tambobamba

Carnaval de Tambobamba

miércoles, 29 de junio de 2011


By: Luis Guzmán Palomino

The history of the separatist war in which Peru was born as an independent state in Spain, it has still many pages to be written,

especially regarding the participation of the Peruvian people fighting in those years from 1820 to 1824, organized guerillas in several regions and covered in most places of the United Army of Liberation. For unexplained reasons, did not agree to date a few exceptions, the analysis of that period from the Peruvian point of view, the excessive glorification of pampering allies at the expense of ours, whose performance in any case was less important. Prejudice and ignorance have marginalized Peruvians protagonists of the war, including senior managers who were linked to the guerrillas Indian and mestizo. We believe that this involves not only failure, but even injustice for which compensation can not be delayed any longer.

Perhaps the most serious omission is the one that has buried in oblivion the distinguished Colonel Marcelino Santiago Carreño Cuzco, whose name almost no one remembers even though it was the highest-ranking Peruvian officer who died in the campaign of Ayacucho. Of the patriot leaders only Briton William Miller cited among the heroes; silenced everyone else, forgetting who was the liberator of Chile, winner of several guerrilla actions, an organizer of a squadron of cavalry regiment would be based "Hussars Junin "and Head of the" Vanguardia guerrillas "in the ultimate battle of Ayacucho. No memorial reminds Carreño, hardly some historians, notably Juan Jose Vega, have vindicated his memory dictionaries nor Peruvian named characters and has to date had the honor of his brilliant career demands.

On December 8, 1824, on the eve of fighting the battle of Ayacucho, where exactly down with his guerrillas to participate in it, Carreno was ambushed near the Condorcunca, fighting his last battle there and slain heroically. These modest notes on salient features of his biography, written as an acknowledgment of gratitude to so illustrious Peruvian few worthy as prominently in the most glorious pages of our history.
Libertador de Chile

Unknown to date record of singular patriot, but several papers point to it as Peru and Cuzco, with the addition of Indian contemporaries ascribed some racists, not exactly realistic. He must start his military career at an early age and was the first to embrace the cause of independence, as there is evidence that he fought for the liberation of Chile, winning his promotion in the battlefields to reach the rank of sergeant major. Its proven love for Peru, her country and its soil, as mentioned many times, led to his enlistment in the expedition San Martin, ranking among the 29 officers who brought the Regiment "Dragoons of Chile", a body that came with only two individuals troop , indicating that it was completed with a majority of Peruvian recruits.

Winner in Coparí and Ccahuachi

In 1821, Miller accompanied Carreño incursions into Southern ports, and could not be in Lima at the time of independence in those days it was sailing from Arica to Pisco, where he landed on August 1.Fleeing from the royalist garrison Ica, Miller items sent in pursuit, and the scope came in Coparí with clear patriot victory. The enemy continued the flight to the mountains, but was intercepted by Morochucos and was forced to return to the coast, intending to Arequipa. Miller knew it in Tambo and highlighted a troop led by Carreño to cut off the retreat of the enemy. Collecting reports of friendly Indians, Carreño advanced by Nazca, and the night of August 10, surprised the Ccahuachi realistic, setting a new and decisive victory that was enhanced because he defeated an enemy that exceeded four times the number of its troops.Back in Ica Miller deserved praise, because thanks to their efforts was free realistic immediate southern Lima.

The New Nation of Children of the Sun

Then Carreno was appointed to the capital to take part in the siege of Callao in command of the "Grenadiers" battalion "Auxiliary of Lima." In September of that year succeeded Pardo de Zela in the leadership of the battalion "Interim Lima," which was organized on the basis of 1500 blacks were presented to serve voluntarily. Disciplined and trained the troops, recommending granting freedom to slaves who were noting that the "Grenadiers" were perhaps the best of the Liberation Army.

Carreño sincere longing the emergence of a new nation where the ideals were realized by those who blew themselves up so many thousands of Peruvians, from Manco Inca to Pumaccahua. And as knowledgeable about the history of Peru was the main ideal of the resurrection of the autonomous state on the basis purely of the Andes, because he always addressed his countrymen and soldiers, all Peruvians, calling them "Children of the Sun," a phrase which itself shut an ideology deeply nationalistic. Far was then suspect that the libertarian ideals of the fighters end up being betrayed by the Creoles, the ruling class who profit the patriot victory at the expense of the oppressed masses.

Military Commander of Nazca

In early 1822, with the approval of the Minister illustrated Monteagudo, Carreno was appointed Military Commander of the Party of Nazca.Reaffirmed its qualities as an instructor there militia and earned the praise of Colonel Tristan, who called it "egregious official skills and confidence." Obeying the orders of General Alvarado Rudesindo continually moved between Palpa and Nazca, to maintain contact with the guerrilla leaders and Lucanas Caravelí. It then developed the First Intermediate campaign and its mission was to "contain any incursion of the enemy in the mountains."

In April of that year, threatening its position, Pisco was sent to St. Nicholas the brig "Pejespada," with orders to embark his troops. Already in Pisco took pains to collect scattered and passed April 20 Chanquillo to incorporate a batch of 120 men.Along the way he was informed that the royalist leaders and Valdes Carratalá from Palpa and Ica, respectively, highlighting combined forces to lock, then back to the port and not getting the ship to sail, went astray for over two and a half days without water any food, until the enemy retired, unable to return to Pisco "in the last end of life."What succor there, the mayor of Paracas, who were saved thanks to the stragglers who were also in the sand.
The fact that we could evade the enemy despite being in such poor conditions, won him the gratitude of the government, upon arrival in Lima was appointed Political and Military Governor of Huarochiri, with control over the guerrillas operating in the mountains immediately.

Guerrilla Chief in Huarochiri

The work of Colonel Carreno in the highlands of Lima was multiple, and difficult. Recruit, organize, train and equip several items, incorporating career officers and troops to guerrilla fighters into the regular army. Relying on the consistent support of these troops formed Indian mayors from almost nothing, and even established an armory, with few resources but with admirable enthusiasm. It also organized an adequate intelligence service, through which he was aware of enemy movement, conveying timely reports to their superiors.

He had no fixed venue but continually moved through all the towns in his jurisdiction to personally verify their needs and progress in the guerrilla organization. He stood where his presence was required between June and December 1882 was in Huarochiri Yauli, Matucana, La Oroya, San Mateo, Cachicachi, Carampoma, Chaclacayo, San Damiano, Olleros, Santa Inés, Yuracmayo, Casapalca, San Lorenzo de Quinti , Sing, Chorrillos, Langa, etc. and even down to Lima when there was no response to their requests for help.

Extreme nationalist

This relentless bustle was not understood by some Allied commanders as Francisco de Paula Otero, president of Tarma and Commanding General of the Sierra, who repeatedly complained of not being well cared for and even recommended to stay Carreño a fixed point for adequate support.This was responded to Peru's head: "My residence is walking, and I stand where the functions of my office called me where I can be useful to my country and my land."

In fulfilling its duty Carreño battled tirelessly with the royalists, hot on the rear and harassed by frequent and sudden attacks. But while growing influence among the Peruvians, the opposition also grew they did the allied commanders and some party leaders jealous of his success. The fact that they intend to limit its functions to a subordinate simply motivated Carreño was becoming extreme nationalist. And this caused him further problems, unfounded accusations and alleged insults, such as those inserted a placard appeared in Yauli, calling it "tyrannical and Peruvian Cuzco through."To balance that animosity Carreño consolidated a unique partnership with the mayors Indians, at one point came to proclaim that only he would abide by the orders dictated. Then raged complaints against him and the end of 1882 was due in Lima to defend themselves. Lacking this time from lawyers in January 1823 he was stripped of his command for the Governing Board.
Forger of the Hussars of Junín

But the delay was short, as in February 1823 was asked by General Arenales to bring the guerrillas in the mountains and allow the transit of Colonel Otero Lima. He went on to Huanuco, where he organized a cavalry squadron that eventually settle for the glorious regiment "Hussars of Junín". He owed his claim to the change in government, as Riva Aguero became president and army chief General Santa Cruz.

In March of that year was recognized as a sergeant major in June and looked gallons of lieutenant colonel. It was then assigned as deputy Villar Isidoro, acting as the new Commander of the Sierra. Grew his influence again, and noticed this by the allied commanders were renewed allegations against him. There was no way the United Army consolidated Libertador, Sucre and the arrival of the crisis stripped of its alleged unity.Riva Aguero was deposed and replaced Torre Tagle, preparing for the arrival of Bolivar. That shift surprised Peruvians who heads for some time, believing sincere nationalism proclaimed by Riva Aguero, were involved in a civil war they never wanted.

Combat Macon

Carreño became an object of suspicion when it was discovered that Riva Agüero is trying to retain communications directed at your service. In such a difficult situation and being in Cerro de Pasco with his "Hussars" and guerrillas, decided to attack the royalists who held Tarma. Requested support of the troops stationed in Huanuco, but his foreign official was reluctant to obey. Had to admonish then the presence of that aid in verifying the Kings meeting in early July 1823, when the enemy had been properly reinforced.

Despite the difficult situation did not abandon his project and delivered a fiery speech to his followers urging them to fight for "freedom of the country", for immediately afterwards, on the morning of July 12, start the progression of Tarma, ignoring the realists were aware of their progress.Thus, entering the stream of Macon was surprised and disaster struck. He tried desperately to defend, but defected allies fled in disarray.Carreno tried to contain the spread, but not getting it opted out to Cerro de Pasco with his "Hussars" and guerrillas, while the allies took the road to Huanuco.

Among Riva Agüero and Bolivar

In that difficult time was that Riva Aguero returned to claim his support. Carreño hesitated to take sides, but not stopped from officiating at Torre Tagle Yanahuanca, requesting orders. Meanwhile their spies roamed the nearby positions, investigating the views of Colombians, because some of them went so far as to criticize his "nationalist sentiments". He attributed those days Riva Agüero proclamations in favor and the situation worsened when the deposed president conveyed a firm promoted to colonel and also appointed Commander of the Sierra.

The Lima government then ordered to attack, but the November 30, 1823 Carreño this action by announcing contained in a letter to Bolivar was at their service to fight for the most sacred interests of the country. Four days later, in a letter to Colonel Otero, Carreno made the necessary demarcation, "I said V. S. S. E. (Bolivar) has warned him that I have disobeyed Mr. Riva Agüero, that's true throughout Peru and see your great service time I've done the ground I was born ... What V. S. I propose (amnesty, and command level recognition, etc.). everything is supported by a Peruvian who do not fancy but the freedom of his country, but warn V. S. soldiers who served in the day my body to be sacred. " The latter alarmed Otero, who faked compromise however, the two leaders finally met on December 5 Huanuco proclaiming a sincere friendship that was only part of the head of Peru.

In the final campaign

Not be long for revictimization Carreño suspicion.He maintained, however, command of the "Hussars of Peru," but his assistant was appointed as commander alo Aldao, whose real mission was to go nullifying his authority. Sucre recommended for inclusion in the forefront of the Liberation Army, but leaders demanded his expulsion as Bermúdez, accusing him of seducing the soldiers to embrace the party of Riva Agüero. The charge was absolutely false, because from Guayaquil the ousted president had written to render obedience to ordering Carreño Bolivar. Reasons to hate the other and Peru were let on the writing Bermudez Otero: "Now comes the best time to separate the man from us." That conspiracy has paid off in March 1824 and was stripped of command Carreño of the "Hussars of Peru" was replaced by none other than Aldao.

Everything indicates that this injustice disapproved Bolívar, as recognized in July as head of Colonel Carreno Park Liberation Army. Know its participation in the campaign of Junin, but we know that in September the lead head of the host that led Bolivar to Huamanga. His value was also recognized by the general mestizo Santa Cruz, who said the command of "Hussars" in risky observation missions over the river Pampas.
The riskiest missions

In the following weeks ranked headquarters to the "guerrillas Vanguardia". So what Miller said, noting that "the Montoneros, under the command of Colonel Carreno brave," accounted Abancay and other points on the left bank of Apurimac. Sucre also gave testimony to the important mission of serving Carreño, writing from Mamara, 17 October: "Cutuctay line, Colca, San Juan de Cotabambas, San Augustine and Copca, is crossed by Colonel Carreno, which has takenLieutenant prisoner of the "Imperial" met Cristobal Antonio won and 260 cattle have taken ... Carreño Larata writes he plans to spend Limatambo in raids. The attached Carreño going to hurry and secure. " And 18 from Trapiche, Althaus reported on the other hand, "Carreno is Curahuasi protecting the return of spies infiltrated in Cuzco."

The participation of the patriot leader was extremely important, because not only was limited to reconnaissance, but protected the intelligence service, made collection of food and continually harassed the advanced realistic. We were entrusted with the most risky missions and served brilliantly and, no doubt, was his guerrillas who had the most realistic crashes during the campaign in Apurimac.

The sublime sacrifice

That relentless bustle, that reckless daring, that total dedication to the cause he advocated, were reasons enough for the enemy is bent on finalization. Thus, on 30 November, when making new entry in Talavera, near Andahuaylas, was caught by a patrol ambushed, suffering heavy losses in violent combat. He escaped with difficulty and walked in the days following the heights of the Pampas struggling to reorganize their guerrillas.

Was finally able to get it, but the December 8, 1824, in coming down to meet the bulk of the Liberation Army to take part in the decisive Battle of Ayacucho and imminent, he was again caught in the vicinity of Condorcunca. They have fought his last fight and blew himself heroically not see the big win that much and so many struggles.

No one remembered quote in the patriotic party the next day realized the victory in the Pampa de Quinoa. They killed him twice, said bitterly Juan Jose Vega, and even a thousand times, because 179 years of its sublime sacrifice does not have the seat it deserves in the most glorious pages of our history.
Sources: Documentary Collection of the Independence of Peru, volumes on the Navy (1780-1822), the Liberating Expedition, Military Affairs in the People's Patriotic Action Emancipation, and Guerrilla Montoneros. See also the Memoirs of Miller and O'Leary. Juan Jose Vega is the historian who has struggled with more zeal for the vindication of Colonel Carreno.


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