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martes, 12 de julio de 2011

Gabriel José Gálvez Egúsquiza

Gabriel José Gálvez Egúsquiza (* Cajamarca,March 17, 1819 - † Callao, May 2, 1866) was a lawyer, educator and Peruvian political liberal.Great speaker, from the parliamentary tribunestamp advocated liberal reforms such as abolition of slavery and Indian tribute. It also becameMinister of War and Navy. He was one of the heroes of the battle of Dos de Mayo del Callao, where he died fighting the Spanish fleet, thus becoming a symbol of American independence.
The Chilean historian Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna,who knew him personally, he was portrayed well, "Galvez was a man of modest figure, small-bodied, dark, pale, with a carefully coiffed head, careful in his dress and manners extremely soft andattractive. But beneath the cold and sweetappearance hid a big heart and developed a vastintelligence. "

Son of Colonel José Manuel Gálvez Paz Lima and Maria Micaela Egúsquiza and Aristizábal. He studied at the Central School of Sciences and Arts in his hometown, under the direction of the priest Juan Pio Burga. After graduating, his father arranged for some time to help him in managing his estate "Catudén."
In 1842, when he was already 22 years, he moved to Lima, enrolling in the convictorium San Carlos, whose rector was the famous orator and priest Bartolomé Herrera. He chose bachelor's degree in Sacred Canons in 1843 and became a lawyer in 1845. For five years he practiced in the area of ​​Cerro de Pasco and Tarma.
In 1850 he returned to Lima, joined the faculty of the College of Guadalupe as a professor of Moral Philosophy, Psychology, Logic and theodicy. In 1852 he became director of campus to replace his brother Peter and printed one with very strong liberal studies, in contrast to the conservative Convictorio followed in San Carlos under the chancellorship of Herrera.
He left teaching to join the revolution begun by Gen. Ramon Castilla, Arequipa, and helped decide the abolition of tribute from the Indians and the emancipation of slaves (1854), for which theoretically had advocated in their classes.Triumphant revolution in the battle of La Palma (January 5, 1855), was appointed rector of San Carlos convictorium, and during his administration quest to counter the influence of Herrera.
Then he was elected deputy for the province of Jauja the National Convention of 1855 and this, when installed on 13 July, he was elected Secretary, re-elected in successive elections of September 1, October 1 and November 1 , will serve until 30 this month. On February 1 of the Convention elected him its president, a post he held until 28 months referred to, having been reelected to two more chances. He was part of the Criminal Code Codifying Commission in 1857 and was Dean of the College of Lawyers of Lima.
In 1857 he dissolved the National Convention Castilla attitude that made his exalted opponent Galvez, from writing the daily El Constitutional (April 3 to August 1, 1858). To prevent the prevalence of the new Constitution of November 3, 1860, he joined with Ricardo Palma and other officers of a liberal conspiracy to victimize Castilla, taking by assault the house Street Wives (November 23, 1860 ). And the attempt had to take refuge in the embassy of Chile in Lima and go into exile, heading to Europe.

May 2nd bout of Callao.
He traveled to Paris and then to Geneva. He returned to Peru in 1862 and devoted himself to advocacy. The following year he obtained his doctorate in law at the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, with a thesis on the autonomous scientific institutions from the state.
In 1865 he was elected dean of the Lima Bar Association and, as such dissatisfaction expressed by the passive attitude of President Juan Antonio Pezet against the aggression of the Spanish Pacific Fleet, for this reason being banished back to Chile. He returned to join in Chincha, the revolution led by Colonel Mariano Ignacio Prado, who asked to be allowed to fight, and was recognized as a colonel. After the triumph of the revolution and the establishment of the dictatorship of the Prado, was appointed as Secretary of War and Navy, integrating the famous cabinet of the talents (1865).
Upon learning of the manifesto (April 27, 1866) made from frigate Numancia captain by Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez, commander of the Spanish fleet, threatening to bomb the Callao within four days, Gálvez became director of the defense that port and built a series of batteries, placed north and south, putting the weak and small warships to the center. In defending the tower was located north of Junin, Ayacucho and the fort of the famous canyon of the people on the banks of the strong south of Santa Rosa, the tower of La Merced, which was pivotal and armored battery was Zepitafront of the Mar Brava.
On May 2, 1866, in the early hours of combat, one of the guns of Fort Blakely Santa Rosa was rendered useless. The unfortunate thing was that a bomb of the Spanish frigate Almansa, entered through a door and came to explode in some packets of gunpowder, which was a huge explosion that destroyed the tower of the Merced, where he was Gálvez, along with some officers and soldiers, killing all heroically.
The next day the Government issued a decree ordering in the Artillery Battalion Galvez Plaza is considered as "First Chief." And when you read his name in the act of review, the commander said, "who died heroically in defense of the Fatherland and Honor America."
[Edit] Hero civil and liberal leader

José Gálvez Egúsquiza can rightly be considered the greatest hero of Peru civil, comparable in size to Miguel Grau and Francisco Bolognesi (marine and soldier, respectively). Jorge Guillermo Leguia called "formidable orator and Democratic leader" and praised the work undertaken and Sebastian Lorente and brothers Peter and Jose Galvez Egúsquiza from the classrooms of the College of Our Lady of Guadalupe contrasting the liberal ideals of democracy and equality to the conservatism of Convictorio Bartolomé Herrera in San Carlos:
"The ultramontane Herrera Convictorio caused the resurrection of liberalism Rodriguez-Mendoza [referring to the precursor of Peruvian independence Toribio Rodriguez de Mendoza] and its adaptation to the ideas of 1848. In front of San Carlos, which advocated a hierarchy with colonial overtones , won the College of Our Lady of Guadalupe, and came against the Spanish Herrera Sebastian Lorente (...) and Pedro and Jose Galvez Cajamarca Egúsquiza. The glorious liberal triumvirate, as well as counteract the propaganda retrograde Herrera, intellectual and civic fought for equality. And not content with his noble sermon, he left the classroom through the gorge of montonero and revolutionary battlefield in which imposed the abolition of Negro slavery and the abolition of tribute from Indians.
"At its leading figures to the government, Jose Galvez was appointed rector of the Colegio de San Carlos and began the reform of the University, approved by the dictatorial government of Castile. Jose Galvez, the upright and comprehensive public man who had struggled Chontapaccha for freedomphysics of black, undertook a crusade to win the freedom of mind and in his rectory, as fleeting as a brilliant, brought the most illustrious Convictorio galaxy that has ever entered into these cloisters [those of the "Casona" de San Marcos "in the center of Lima]. Needless to add that neither Antonio Raimondi, nor Mateo Paz Soldan, and Wenceslao Garaicochea, the eminent men of science called by the speaker and formidable Democratic leader, had obscurantist ideology.
"Intervention at the University of Galvez gallantly opened the fourth stage of San Marcos: the professional stage" .1
Thus the great José Gálvez Egúsquiza left the rector of San Carlos restored liberalism to assume the highest responsibilities in the Department of Defense to organize civil and military response of Callao against the arrogance of the Spanish monarchy which sought to give a lesson South American Pacific nations.
[Edit] The monument in the Plaza 2 de Mayo

After the immolation of Jose Galvez Egúsquiza in combating May 2, 1866, opened in 1874 in what was the Queen's Oval in front of the cover of the old wall Callao in Lima, the Victory Column combatMay 2. Originally the design was to take the bust of Gálvez at the top, but then agreed to replace the statue of Victory, it was felt that the monument should pay homage to all the advocates of Callao and not just an individual particular.2 The German traveler Ernest W. Middendorf late nineteenth century describes this monument:
"At the center of a circular space which is separated from the rest of the place by small posts and chains, a fluted column stands on a sphere that keeps air and golden figure of the goddess of Victory. The figure looks towards the sea and in the right hand holds aloft a sword and a palm tree on the left. The base of the column is cylindrical and consists of three high steps of granite. Then follows the socket, which is protected by an iron gate. At their sides are bronze plaques in relief depictions of scenes from the struggle over capital is a square on which stands the column and flanked by four female figures supporting a symbol of the four allied American republics [ Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru]. In part that is oriented to the sea is a small platform on the figure reproduces the death of Colonel Galvez, and below it reads the inscription: "The defenders of Peru and America to renew the glories of independence rejected the Spanish invasion and the American union sealed in Callao on May 2, 1866 - MDCCCLXXII. "
Many streets and squares of Peruvian cities are also the names of Jose Galvez and the glorious battle of May 2.
[Edit] References

↑ Jorge Guillermo Leguia, "Speech at the General San Marcos on June 21, 1931." In: Jorge Guillermo Leguia, Men and Ideas in Peru (1941), 1989, pg. S. 142).
↑ "A monument for all." Article published in El Comercio of Lima, on June 15, 1997, section A, pg. 17.
[Edit] References

Basadre, George: History of the Republic of Peru.1822 - 1933, Eighth Edition, revised and enlarged.Volume 5, pp. 1093-1094. Published by the newspaper "La República" and the University of Lima "Ricardo Palma". Printed in Santiago, Chile, 1998.
Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Encyclopedia of Peru.Third Edition. Volume 7. Lima, ESRP, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-156-1
Vargas Ugarte, Rubén: General History of Peru.Volume IX. The Republic (1844-1879). Second Edition. Lima - Peru, Editorial Milla Batres, 1984.
Various Authors: Founders of Peru. Lima, Lexus Editores, 2000. ISBN 9972-625-50-8
Several authors: History of Peru. Lima, Lexus Editores, 2000. ISBN 9972-625-35-4

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