|Fujimori landing in Andrews Air Force Base in 1998.|
|90th President of Peru|
28 July 1990 – 22 November 2000
|Vice President||Máximo San Román (1990–92)
Jaime Yoshiyama Tanaka(1993–95)
Ricardo Márquez (1995–2000)
Francisco Tudela (2000)
|Preceded by||Alan García|
|Succeeded by||Valentín Paniagua|
|Born||28 July 1938
|Political party|| Sí Cumple
People's New Party
|Cambio 90 (1990–1999)
Peru 2000 (2000)
Alliance for the Future (2006)
|Spouse(s)||Susana Higuchi (divorced)
|Alma mater||Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina
University of Strasbourg
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
Alberto Fujimori Fujimori 藤森 謙也 (Fujimori Ken'ya); pronounced [alˈbeɾto fuxiˈmoɾi]) (born 28 July 1938) served as President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 17 November 2000. A controversial figure, Fujimori has been credited with the creation of Fujimorism, uprootingterrorism (Sendero Luminoso) in Peru and restoring itsmacroeconomic stability, though his methods have drawn charges of authoritarianism and human rights violations. Even amidst his 2008 prosecution forcrimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.
A Peruvian of Japanese descent, Fujimori fled to Japan in 2000 amidst a corruption scandal, where he attempted to resign his presidency. His resignation was rejected by the Congress of the Republic, which preferred to remove him from office by the process ofimpeachment. Wanted in Peru on charges of corruption and human rights abuses, Fujimori maintained a self-imposed exile until his arrest during a visit to Chile in November 2005. He was finally extradited to face criminal charges in Peru in September 2007.
In April 2009, Fujimori was convicted of human rights violations and sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the Grupo Colina death squad during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s. The verdict delivered by a three-judge panel marked the first time that an elected head of state has been extradited back to his home country, tried, and convicted of human rights violations. Fujimori was specifically found guilty of murder, bodily harm, and two cases of kidnapping.
In July 2009 Fujimori was sentenced to 7½ years in prison for embezzlement, after he admitted to giving $15 million out of the Peruvian treasury to the formerintelligence service chief, Vladimiro Montesinos. Two months later in a fourth trial, he pled guilty to bribery and was given an additional six-year term.
Under Peruvian law all the sentences must run concurrently, with a maximum length of imprisonment of 25 years.
The 1993 Constitution allowed Fujimori to run for a second term, and in April 1995, at the height of his popularity, Fujimori easily won reelection with almost two-thirds of the vote. His major opponent, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, won only 22 percent of the vote. Fujimori's supporters won comfortable majorities in the legislature. One of the first acts of the new congress was to declare an amnesty for all members of the Peruvian military or police accused or convicted of human rights abuses between 1980 and 1995.
During his second term, Fujimori signed a peace agreement with Ecuador over a border dispute that had simmered for more than a century. The treaty allowed the two countries to obtain international funds for developing the border region. Fujimori also settled unresolved issues with Chile, Peru's southern neighbor, still outstanding since the Treaty of Lima of 1929.
The 1995 election was the turning point in Fujimori's career. Peruvians now began to be more concerned about freedom of speech and the press. However, before he was sworn in for a second term, Fujimori stripped two universities of their autonomy and reshuffled the national electoral board. This led his opponents to call him "Chinochet," a reference to his previous nickname and to Chileanruler Augusto Pinochet.
In addition to the nature of democracy under Fujimori, Peruvians were becoming increasingly interested in the myriad criminal allegations involving Fujimori and his chief of the National Intelligence Service, Vladimiro Montesinos. A 2002 report by Health Minister Fernando Carbone would later suggest that Fujimori was involved in the forced sterilizations of up to 300,000 indigenous women from 1996 to 2000, as part of a population control program. A 2004 World Bank publication would suggest that, in this period, Montesinos' abuse of the power accorded him by Fujimori "led to a steady and systematic undermining of the rule of law".
The 1993 constitution limits a presidency to two terms. Shortly after Fujimori began his second term, his supporters in Congress passed a law of "authentic interpretation" which effectively allowed him to run for another term in 2000. A 1998 effort to repeal this law by referendum failed. In late 1999, Fujimori announced that he would run for a third term. Peruvian electoral bodies, which were politically sympathetic to Fujimori, accepted his argument that the two-term restriction did not apply to him, as it was enacted while he was already in office.
Exit polls showed Fujimori fell short of the 50% required to avoid an electoral runoff, but the first official results showed him with 49.6% of the vote, just short of outright victory. Eventually, Fujimori was credited with 49.89%—20,000 votes short of avoiding a runoff. Despite reports of numerous irregularities, the international observers recognized an adjusted victory of Fujimori. His primary opponent, Alejandro Toledo, called for his supporters to spoil their ballots in the runoff by writing "No to fraud!" on them (voting is mandatory in Peru). International observers pulled out of the country after Fujimori refused to delay the runoff.
In the runoff, Fujimori won with 51.1% of the valid votes. While votes for Toledo declined from 40.24% of the valid votes cast in the first round to 25.67% of the valid votes in the second round, invalid votes jumped from 2.25% of the total votes cast in the first round to 29.93% of total votes in the second round. The large percentage of votes cast as invalid suggested that many Peruvians took Toledo's advice to spoil their ballots.
(The 51.1 and 25 figures are as percentages of valid votes, that is, excluding invalid votes. Thus, there were 29.93% invalid votes and 70.07% valid votes. Of this 70.07%, 51.1% were for Fujimori and 25.67% for Toledo.)
Although Fujimori had won the runoff with only a bare majority, rumors of irregularities led most of the international community to shun his third swearing-in on July 28. For the next seven weeks, there were daily demonstrations in front of the presidential palace.
As a conciliatory measure, Fujimori appointed former opposition candidate Federico Salas as the new prime minister. However, opposition parties in Parliament refused to support this move while Toledo campaigned vigorously to have the election annulled. At this point, a corruption scandal involving Vladimiro Montesinos broke out, and exploded into full force on the evening of 14 September 2000, when the cable television station Canal N broadcast footage of Montesinos apparently bribing opposition congressman Alberto Kouri for his defection to Fujimori's Perú 2000 party. This video was presented by Fernando Olivera, leader of the FIM (Independent Moralizing Front), who purchased it from one of Montesinos's closest allies (nicknamed by the Peruvian press El Patriota).
Fujimori's support virtually collapsed, and a few days later he announced in a nationwide address that he would shut down the SIN and call new elections—in which he would not be a candidate. On 10 November, Fujimori won approval from Congress to hold elections on 8 April 2001. On 13 November, Fujimori left Peru for a visit to Brunei to attend the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. On 16 November, Valentín Paniagua took over as president of Congress after the pro-Fujimori leadership lost a vote of confidence. On 17 November, Fujimori traveled from Brunei to Tokyo, where he submitted his presidential resignation via fax. Congress refused to accept his resignation, instead voting 62–9 to remove Fujimori from office on the grounds that he was "permanently morally disabled."
On 19 November, government ministers presented their resignations en bloc. Because Fujimori's first vice president, Francisco Tudela, had broken with Fujimori and resigned a few days earlier, his successor Ricardo Márquez came to claim the presidency. Congress, however, refused to recognize him, as he was an ardent Fujimori loyalist; Márquez resigned two days later. Paniagua was next in line, and became interim president to oversee the April elections.
When Fujimori came to power, much of Peru was dominated by the Maoist insurgent group Sendero Luminoso ("Shining Path"), and the Marxist-Leninist group Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement(MRTA). In 1989, 25% of Peru's district and provincial councils opted not to hold elections, owing to a persistent campaign of assassination, over the course of which over 100 officials had been killed by Shining Path in that year alone. That same year, over one-third of Peru's positions for justices of the peace stood vacant, owing to Shining Path intimidation. Union leaders and military officials had also been assassinated throughout the 1980s.
By the early 1990s, some parts of the country were under the control of the insurgents, in territories known as "zonas liberadas" ("liberated zones"), where inhabitants lived under the rule of these groups and paid them taxes. When Shining Path arrived in Lima, it organized "paros armados" ("work stoppages"), which were enforced by killings and other forms of violence. The leadership of Shining Path was largely university students and teachers. Two previous governments, those of Fernando Belaúnde Terry and Alan García, at first neglected the threat posed by Shining Path, then launched an unsuccessful military campaign to eradicate it, undermining public faith in the state and precipitating an exodus of elites.
By 1992, Shining Path guerrilla attacks had claimed an estimated 20,000 lives over the course of 12 years. The 16 July 1992 Tarata Bombing, in which several car bombs exploded in Lima's wealthiest district, killed over 40 people; the bombings were characterized by one commentator as an "offensive to challenge President Alberto Fujimori." The bombing at Tarata was followed up with a "weeklong wave of car bombings ... Bombs hit banks, hotels, schools, restaurants, police stations and shops ... [G]uerrillas bombed two rail bridges from the Andes, cutting off some of Peru's largest copper mines from coastal ports."
Fujimori has been credited by many Peruvians with ending the fifteen-year reign of terror of Shining Path. As part of his anti-insurgency efforts, Fujimori granted the military broad powers to arrest suspected insurgents and try them in secret military courts with few legal rights. This measure has often been criticized for having compromised the fundamental democratic and human right of an open trial wherein the accused faces the accuser. Fujimori contended that these measures were justified, that this compromise of open trials was necessary because the judiciary was too afraid to charge alleged insurgents, and that judges and prosecutors had legitimate fears of insurgent reprisals against them or their families. At the same time, Fujimori's government armed rural Peruvians, organizing them into groups known as "rondas campesinas" ("peasant patrols").
Insurgent activity was in decline by the end of 1992, and Fujimori took credit for this development, claiming that his campaign had largely eliminated the insurgent threat. After the 1992 auto-coup, the intelligence work of the DINCOTE (National Counter-Terrorism Directorate) led to the capture of the leaders from Shining Path and MRTA, including notorious Shining Path leader Abimael Guzmán. Guzmán's capture was a political coup for Fujimori, who used it to great effect in the press; in an interview with documentarian Ellen Perry, Fujimori even notes that he specially ordered Guzmán's prison jumpsuit to be white with black stripes, to enhance the image of his capture in the media.
Critics charge that to achieve the defeat of Shining Path, the Peruvian military engaged in widespreadhuman rights abuses, and that the majority of the victims were poor highland countryside inhabitants caught in the crossfire between the military and insurgents. The final report of the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission, published on 28 August 2003, revealed that while the majority of the atrocities committed between 1980 and 1995 were the work of Shining Path, the Peruvian armed forces were also guilty of having destroyed villages and murdered countryside inhabitants whom they suspected of supporting insurgents.
The Japanese embassy hostage crisis began on 17 December 1996, when fourteen MRTA militants seized the residence of the Japanese ambassador in Lima during a party, taking hostage some four hundred diplomats, government officials, and other dignitaries. The action was partly in protest of prison conditions in Peru. During the four-month standoff, the Emerretistas gradually freed all but 72 of their hostages. The government rejected the militants' demand to release imprisoned MRTA members and secretly prepared an elaborate plan to storm the residence, while stalling by negotiating with the hostage-takers.
On 22 April 1997, a team of military commandos, codenamed "Chavín de Huantar", raided the building. One hostage, two military commandos, and all 14 MRTA insurgents were killed in the operation. Images of President Fujimori at the ambassador's residence during and after the military operation, surrounded by soldiers and liberated dignitaries, and walking among the corpses of the insurgents, were widely televised. The conclusion of the four-month long standoff was used by Fujimori and his supporters to bolster his image as tough on terrorism.
Accusations of human rights abuses
Several organizations criticized Fujimori's methods in the struggle against Shining Path and the MRTA. According to Amnesty International, "the widespread and systematic nature of human rights violations committed during the government of former head of state Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000) in Peru constitute crimes against humanity under international law." Fujimori's alleged association with death squads is currently being studied by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, after the court accepted the case of "Cantuta vs Perú".
The 1991 Barrios Altos massacre by members of the death squad Grupo Colina, made up of members of the Peruvian Armed Forces, was one of the crimes cited in the request for his extradition submitted by the Peruvian government to Japan in 2003.
From 1996 to 2000, the Fujimori government oversaw a massive family planning campaign known as Voluntary Surgical Contraception. The United Nations, USAID and other international aid agencies supported this campaign. The Nippon Foundation, headed by Ayako Sono, a Japanese novelist and personal friend of Fujimori, supported as well. Nearly 300,000, mostly indigenous, women were coercively or forcefully sterilized during these years.
The success of the operation in the Japanese embassy hostage crisis was tainted by subsequent allegations that at least three and possibly eight of the insurgents had been summarily executed by the commandos after surrendering. In 2002, the case was taken up by public prosecutors, but the Peruvian Supreme Court ruled that the military tribunals had jurisdiction. A military court later absolved them of guilt, and the "Chavín de Huantar" soldiers led the 2004 military parade. In response, in 2003 MRTA family members lodged a complaint with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights(IACHR) accusing the Peruvian state of human rights violations, namely that the MRTA insurgents had been denied the "right to life, the right to judicial guarantees and the right to judicial protection". The IACHR accepted the case and is currently studying it.
Peruvian Minister of Justice Maria Zavala has stated that this verdict by the IACHR supports the Peruvian government's extradition of Fujimori from Chile. Though the IACHR verdict does not directly implicate Fujimori, it does fault the Peruvian government for its complicity in the 1992 Cantuta University killings.
Resignation, arrest, trial
|This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, dates are out of order and no mention of whether and when Fujimoro left Japan; please give dates for when he left Japan for Chile and then Peru. Please help clarify the section; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (April 2010)|
After his faxed resignation was rejected by the Congress, Fujimori was relieved of his duties as president and banned from Peruvian politics for a decade. He remained in self-imposed exile in Japan, where he resided with his friend, the famous Catholic novelist Ayako Sono. Several senior Japanese politicians have supported Fujimori, partly for his decisive action in ending the 1997 Japanese embassy crisis.
Alejandro Toledo, who assumed the presidency in 2001, spearheaded the criminal case against Fujimori. He arranged meetings with the Supreme Court, tax authorities, and other powers in Peru in order to "coordinate the joint efforts to bring the criminal Fujimori from Japan." His vehemence in this matter at times compromised Peruvian law: forcing the judiciary and legislative system to keep guilty sentences without hearing Fujimori's defense; not providing Fujimori with a lawyer in absence of representation; and expelling pro-Fujimori congressmen from the parliament without proof of the accusations against them. The latter action was later reversed by the judiciary.
The Toledo administration's review of the Fujimori administration led to the Peruvian Congress authorizing charges against Fujimori, in August 2001. Fujimori was alleged to be a co-author, alongside Vladimiro Montesinos, in the death-squad killings at Barrios Altos in 1991 and La Cantuta in 1992. At the behest of Peruvian authorities, Interpol issued an arrest order for Fujimori on charges that included murder, kidnapping, and crimes against humanity. Meanwhile, the Peruvian government found that Japan was not amenable to the extradition of Fujimori; a protracted diplomatic debate ensued, when Japan showed itself unwilling to accede to the extradition request.
In September 2003, Congressman Dora Dávila, joined by Minister of Health Luis Soari, denounced Fujimori and several of his ministers for crimes against humanity, for allegedly having overseen forcedsterilizations during his regime. In November, Congress approved charges against Fujimori, to investigate how much he had been involved in the airdrop of Kalashnikov rifles into the Colombianjungle in 1999 and 2000 for guerrillas of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Fujimori maintains he had no knowledge of the arms-trading, and blames Montesinos. By approving the charges, Congress lifted the immunity granted to Fujimori as a former president, so that he could be criminally charged and prosecuted.
Congress also voted to support charges against Fujimori for the detention and disappearance of 67 students from the central Andean city of Huancayo and the disappearance of several residents from the northern coastal town of Chimbote during the 1990s. It also approved charges that Fujimori mismanaged millions of dollars from Japanese charities, suggesting that the millions of dollars in his bank account were far too much to have been accumulated legally.
By March 2005, it appeared that Peru had all but abandoned its efforts to extradite Fujimori from Japan. In September of that year, Fujimori obtained a new Peruvian passport in Tokyo and announced his intention to run in the Peruvian national election, 2006.
The Special Prosecutor established to investigate Fujimori released a report alleging that the Fujimori administration had obtained US$2 billion though graft. Most of this money came from Vladimiro Montesinos' web of corruption. The Special Prosecutor's figure of two billion dollars is considerably higher than that arrived at by Transparency International, an NGO that studies corruption. In its "Global Corruption Report 2004", Transparency International listed Fujimori as leading the seventh most corrupt government of the past two decades worldwide, estimating that the corruption may have embezzled USD $600 million in funds.
Undaunted by the judicial proceedings underway against him, which, citing Toledo's involvement, he dismissed as "politically motivated", Fujimori, working from Japan, established a new political party in Peru, Sí Cumple, in hopes of participating in the 2006 presidential elections. In February 2004, the Constitutional Court dismissed the possibility of Fujimori participating in those elections, noting that the ex-president was barred by Congress from holding office for ten years. The decision was regarded as unconstitutional by Fujimori supporters such as ex-congress members Luz Salgado, Marta Chávez and Fernán Altuve, who argued it was a "political" maneuver and that the only body with authority to determine the matter was the Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (JNE). Valentín Paniagua disagreed, suggesting that the Constitutional Court finding was binding and that "no further debate is possible".
On 7 April 2009 a three-judge panel convicted Fujimori on charges of human rights abuses, declaring that the "charges against him have been proven beyond all reasonable doubt". The panel found him guilty of ordering the Grupo Colina death squad to commit the November 1991 Barrios Altos massacreand the July 1992 La Cantuta Massacre, which resulted in the deaths of 25 people, and for taking part in the kidnappings of Peruvian opposition journalist Gustavo Gorriti and businessman Samuel Dyer. Fujimori's conviction is the only instance of a democratically elected head of state being tried and convicted of human rights abuses in his own country. Later on 7 April, the court sentenced Fujimori to 25 years in prison.
He faced a third trial in July 2009 over allegations that he illegally gave $15 million in state funds to Vladimiro Montesinos, former head of the National Intelligence Service, during the two months prior to his fall from power. Fujimori admitted paying the money to Montesinos but claimed that he had later paid back the money to the state. On July 20, the court found him guilty of embezzlement and sentenced him to a further seven and a half years in prison.
A fourth, and apparently final, trial took place in September 2009 in Lima. Fujimori was accused of using Montesinos to bribe and tap the phones of journalists, businessmen and opposition politicians – evidence of which led to the collapse of his government in 2000. Fujimori admitted the charges but claimed that the charges were made to damage his daughter's presidential election campaign. The prosecution asked the court to sentence Fujimori to eight years imprisonment with a fine of $1.6 million plus $1 million in compensation to ten people whose phones were bugged. Fujimori pled guilty and was sentenced to six years' imprisonment on 30 September 2009.
Fujimori is credited by many Peruvians for bringing stability to the country after the violence and hyperinflation of the García years. While it is generally agreed that the "Fujishock" brought short/middle-term macroeconomic stability, the long-term social impact of Fujimori's free market economic policies is still hotly debated.
High growth during Fujimori's first term petered out during his second term. "El Niño" phenomena had a tremendous impact on the Peruvian economy during the late 1990s. Nevertheless, total GDP growth between 1992 and 2001, inclusive, was 44.60%, that is, 3.76% per annum; total GDP per capita growth between 1991 and 2001, inclusive, was 30.78%, that is, 2.47% per annum. Also, studies by INEI, the national statistics bureau show that the number of Peruvians living in poverty increased dramatically (from 41.6% to more than 70%) during Alan García's term, but they actually decreased (from more than 70% to 54%) during Fujimori's term. Furthermore, FAO reported Peru reduced undernourishment by about 29% from 1990–92 to 1997–99.
Peru was reintegrated into the global economic system, and began to attract foreign investment. The sell-off of state-owned enterprises led to improvements in some service industries, notably local telephony, mobile telephony and Internet. For example, before privatization, a consumer or business would need to wait up to 10 years to get a local telephone line installed from the monopolistic state-run telephone company, at a cost of $607 for a residential line. A couple of years after privatization, the wait was reduced to just a few days. Peru's Physical land based telephone network had a dramatic increase in telephone penetration from 2.9% in 1993 to 5.9% in 1996 and 6.2% in 2000, and a dramatic decrease in the wait for a telephone line. Average wait went from 70 months in 1993 (before privatization) to two months in 1996 (after privatization). Privatization also generated foreign investment in export-oriented activities such as mining and energy extraction, notably the Camisea gas project and the copper and zinc extraction projects at Antamina.
By the end of the decade, Peru's international currency reserves were built up from nearly zero at the end of García's term to almost US$10 billion. Fujimori also left a smaller state bureaucracy and reduced government expenses (in contrast to the historical pattern of bureaucratic expansion), a technically minded (but widely perceived as politicized) administration of public entities like SUNAT (the tax collection agency), a large number of new schools (not only in Lima but in Peru's small towns), more roads and highways, and new and upgraded communications infrastructure. These improvement led to the revival of tourism, agroexport, industries and fisheries.
Detractors have observed that Fujimori was able to encourage large-scale mining projects with foreign corporations and push through mining-friendly legislation laws because the post auto-coup political picture greatly facilitated the process.
Some analysts state that some of the GDP growth during the Fujimori years reflects a greater rate of extraction of non-renewable resources by transnational companies; these companies were attracted by Fujimori by means of near-zero royalties, and, by the same fact, little of the extracted wealth has stayed in the country. Peru's mining legislation, they claim, has served as a role model for other countries that wish to become more mining-friendly.
Fujimori's privatization program also remains shrouded in controversy. A congressional investigation in 2002, led by socialist opposition congressman Javier Diez Canseco, stated that of the USD $9 billion raised through the privatizations of hundreds of state-owned enterprises, only a small fraction of this income ever benefited the Peruvian people.
Some scholars claim that Fujimori's government became a "dictatorship" after the auto-coup,permeated by a network of corruption organized by his associate Montesinos, who now faces dozens of charges that range from embezzlement to drug trafficking to murder (Montesinos is currently on trial in Lima). Fujimori's style of government has also been described as "populist authoritarianism". Numerous governments and human rights organizations such as Amnesty International, have welcomed the extradition of Fujimori to face human rights charges. As early as 1991, Fujimori had himself vocally denounced what he called "pseudo-human rights organizations" such as Amnesty International and Americas Watch, for allegedly failing to criticize the insurgencies targeting civilian populations throughout Peru against which his government was struggling.
Fujimori still enjoys a measure of support within Peru. A poll conducted in March 2005 by the Instituto de Desarrollo e Investigación de Ciencias Económicas (IDICE) indicated that 12.1% of the respondents intended to vote for Fujimori in the 2006 presidential election. A poll conducted on 25 November 2005, by the Universidad de Lima indicated a high approval (45.6%) rating of the Fujimori period between 1990 and 2000, attributed to his counterinsurgency efforts (53%).
According to a more recent Universidad de Lima survey, Fujimori still retains public support, ranking fifth in personal popularity among other political figures. Popular approval for his decade-long presidency (1990–2000) has reportedly grown (from 31.5% in 2002 to 49.5% in May 2007). Despite accusations of corruption and human rights violations, nearly half of the individuals interviewed in the survey approved of Fujimori’s presidential regime. In a 2007Universidad de Lima survey of 600 Peruvians in Lima and the port of Callao, 82.6% agreed that the former president should be extradited from Chile to stand trial in Peru.
The Lima-based newspaper Perú 21 ran an editorial noting that even though the Universidad de Limapoll results indicate that four out of every five interviewees believe that Fujimori is guilty of some of the charges against him, he still enjoys at least 30% of popular support and enough approval to restart a political career.
In the 2006 congressional elections, his daughter Keiko was elected to the congress with the highest vote count. She came in second place in the 2011 Peruvian presidential election with 23.2% of the vote, and will be participating in the June run-off against Ollanta Humala.
- History of Peru
- Politics of Peru
- Japanese Peruvians
- List of Presidents of Peru
- Vladimiro Montesinos
- Peruvian national election, 2006
- Peruvian internal conflict
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- ^ Official electoral data file
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- ^ Famous people major in Mathematics, University of Rochester website. Retrieved on 30 March 2007
- ^ Interview with Fujimori, in Ellen Perry's The Fall of Fujimori
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- ^ a b Gouge, Thomas. Exodus from Capitalism: The End of Inflation and Debt. 2003, page 363.
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- ^ Organization of American States (OAS). 1992. Ser. G MRE/RES 1/92 April 13.
- ^ Cameron, Maxwell A. and Mauceri, Philip. The Peruvian Labyrinth. 1997, page 216.
- ^ Conaghan, Catherine M. Fujimori's Peru: Deception in the Public Sphere. 2006, page 55.
- ^ Buckman, Robert T. (2010). The World Today Series: Latin America 2010. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 9781935264125.
- ^ Cathleen Caron, Judiciary Firmly Under Control in Fujimori's Peru, Human Rights Brief, Volume 6 Issue 1 (1999). p.9 et. seq.
- ^ Roger Atwood, 'Democratic Dictators: Authoritarian Politics in Pertu from Leguia to Fujimori,' SAIS Review, vol. 21, no. 2 (2001), p. 167
- ^ Kurt Weyland, 'Neopopulism and Neoliberalism in Latin America: Unexpected Affinities,' Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 31, no. 3 (1996)
- ^ "State Society Interactions as Sources of Persistence and Change in Inequality" in Inequality in Latin America: Breaking With History? (World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Viewpoints). David De Ferranti, et al. World Bank Publications. 2004, p. 139
- ^ David R. Mares 2001 Violent Peace: Militarized Interstate Bargaining in Latin America New York: Columbia University Press, p. 161.
- ^ Clifford Krauss, Peru's Chief to Seek 3rd Term, Capping a Long Legal Battle, 'New York Times, 28 December 1999. Accessed online 26 September 2006.
- ^ Freeman, Michael. Freedom Or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers. 2003, p. 150.
- ^ Freeman, Michael. Freedom Or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers. 2003, page 148.
- ^ Freeman, Michael. Freedom Or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers. 2003, p. 159.
- ^ "By the time Fujimori was elected you had a population in the cities, and particularly in Lima, that was living in fear." The Fall of Fujimori: Peru's war on terror 6 July 2006
- ^ Car-Bomb Blasts in Peru Kill 18 And Hurt 140 in Wealthy Sector 18 July 1992
- ^ Peruvian Guerrillas Test Government With Bombs 23 July 1992
- ^ Fujimori advances this argument in Ellen Perry's documentary film, The Fall of Fujimori.
- ^ Stern, Steve J. Shining and Other Paths: War and Society in Peru, 1980–1995. 1998, page 307.
- ^ Ellen Perry's The Fall of Fujimori.
- ^ Brewer, Paul. The Lima Embassy Siege and Latin American Terrorism. 2006, page 12.
- ^ Japanese embassy hostage crisis in Peru started 10 years ago 18 December 2006, Accessed 26 December 2006.
- ^ Conaghan, Catherine M. Fujimori's Peru: Deception in the Public Sphere. 2006, page 129.
- ^ Bring Former President Fujimori to Justice, Amnesty International. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Insight News TV | Peru: Fujimori's Forced Sterilization Campaign
- ^ Catholic World News Enough Evidence to Extradite? 27 September 2001
- ^ Peru Plans a Hot Line to Battle Forced-Sterilizations ZENET LIMA, Peru, SEPT. 2, 2001
- ^ Report Nº 13/04, Petition 136/03, Admissibility, Eduardo Nicolas Cruz Sanchez et al., Peru, 27 February 2004, on the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) site. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Verdict made by IACHR favors extradition of Peru's Fujimori 21 December 2006, Accessed 26 December 2006.
- ^ Fate of indemnity clauses: Let the public decide 12 April 2006
- ^ BBC News Fujimori's uncertain status 28 November 2000
- ^ David Pilling, Peru tiring of bid to secure Fujimori return, Financial Times, 31 March 2005. Accessed online 26 September 2006.
- ^ (Spanish) Valle Riestra: Pedido de extradición de Fujimori será rechazado por Chile RPP Noticias, 16 November 2005. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ McClintock, Cynthia and Vallas, Fabian. The United States and Peru: Cooperation at a Cost. 2003, p. 163.
- ^ New Evidence in Fujimori Scandal. BBC, 2 October 2004
- ^ a b Forero, Juan. Peruvians Fight Graft One Case At a Time. The New York Times, 5 April 2004.
- ^ Highlights from the Global Corruption Report 2004, Transparency International, 25 March 2004. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Suharto Tops World Corruption League, 25 March 2004, Laksamana.Net, Jakarta. Archived 17 July 2004 on the Internet Archive.
- ^ (Spanish) No hay nada más que discutir sobre candidatura de Fujimori, Noticias on terra.com.peru, 27 February 2006 credited to Andina. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ (Spanish) Salgado: JNE debe ser quien defina postulación de Fujimori, Noticias on terra.com.peru, 21 February 2005 credited to Expreso. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Brooke, James. An Ex-President of Peru Plots His Return. The New York Times, 24 February 2004.
- ^ "Peru's Fujimori convicted of human rights crimes". Reuters. 7 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- ^ "Peru court finds Fujimori guilty". Agence France-Presse. 7 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- ^ Mapstone, Naomi (7 April 2009). "Fujimori convicted of human rights crimes". The Financial Times. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- ^ "Peru's Fujimori guilty of murder". Associated Press (Toronto). 7 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- ^ a b "Fujimori convicted of corruption". BBC News. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- ^ a b c d "Fujimori sentenced for corruption". BBC News. 30 September 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- ^ a b c "Fujimori pleads guilty to bribery". BBC News. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
- ^ Gastón Antonio Zapata Velasco, Kenneth Broad, et al., Peru Country Case Study: Impacts and Responses to the 1997–98 El Niño Event, Peru Country Case Study supported by the International Research Institute for climate prediction (IRI) and NOAA’s Office of Global Programs as a contribution to the UNEP/NCAR/WMO/UNU/ISDR study for the UN Foundation. Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ El Entorno, Atlas Internet Perú – Red Científica Peruana, 2003. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Undernourishment around the world: Reductions in undernourishment over the past decade, part of The state of food insecurity in the world 2001, FAO Corporate Document Repository. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ (Spanish) Las Privatizaciones y la Pobreza en el Perú: Resultados y Desafios (PowerPointpresentation), unsigned, undated, on the site of El Área de Economía de la Regulación, Centro de Investigación de la Universidad del Pacífico (CIUP). Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ Peru after Privatization: Are Telephone Consumers Better Off?. Máximo Torero, Enrique Schroth, and Alberto Pascó-Font. Accessed 4 October 2006.
- ^ Líneas en servicio y densidad en la telefonía fija y móvil: 1993 – 2006 Excel spreadsheet, on the site of Peru's Ministry of Transport and Communications. Accessed 28 September 2006.
- ^ The Information Revolution in Latin America: The Case of Peru (PDF), 6 December 1999. Student group paper from Stanford University. Accessed 28 September 2006.
- ^ McClintock, Cynthia and Vallas, Fabian. The United States and Peru: Cooperation at a Cost. 2003, pages 105–6.
- ^ (Spanish) Primer reporte-resumen ... Actividades en el Congreso, El Heraldo, 27 October 2004, reprinted on the site of the Peruvian Congress. Accessed 28 September 2006.
- ^ (Spanish) Noti-Aprodeh, 8 April 2003, Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos (APRODEH). Accessed 28 September 2006.
- ^ "Chile, Peru – How much do mining companies contribute? The debate on royalties is not over yet",Latinamerica Press, Special Edition – The Impact of Mining Latinamerica Press, Vol. 37, No. 2, 26 January 2005. ISSN 0254-203X. Accessible online as a Microsoft Word document. Accessed 26 September 2006. There appears to be a separate HTML copy of the article on the site of Carrefour Amérique Latine (CAL). Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ "Peru: Public consultation says NO to mining in Tambogrande", pp.14–15 in WRM Bulletin # 59, June 2002 (World Rainforest Movement, English edition). Accessible online as Rich Text Format(RTF) document. Accessed 26 September 2006.
- ^ Jeffrey Bury, "Livelihoods in transition: transnational gold mining operations and local change in Cajamarca, Peru" The Geographical Journal (Royal Geographic Society), Vol. 170 Issue 1 March 2004, p. 78. Link leads to a pay site allowing access to this paper.
- ^ "Investing in Destruction: The Impacts of a WTO Investment Agreement on Extractive Industries in Developing Countries", Oxfam America Briefing Paper, June 2003. Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ “A Backwards, Upside-Down Kind of Development”: Global Actors, Mining and Community-Based Resistance in Honduras and Guatemala, Rights Action, February 2005. Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ Charles D. Kenney, 2004 Fujimori's Coup and the Breakdown of Democracy in Latin America(Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies) University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-03172-X
- ^ Julio F. Carrion (ed.) 2006 The Fujimori Legacy: The Rise of Electoral Authoritarianism in Peru.Pennsylvania State University Press ISBN 0-271-02748-7
- ^ Catherine M. Conaghan 2005 Fujimori's Peru: Deception In The Public Sphere (Pitt Latin American Series) University of Pittsburgh Press ISBN 0-8229-4259-3
- ^ (Spanish) Esteban Cuya, La dictadura de Fujimori: marionetismo, corrupción y violaciones de los derechos humanos, Centro de Derechos Humanos de Nuremberg, July 1999. Accessed 22 October 2006.
- ^ Resolución del Parlamento Europeo apoyando la extradición de Fujimori, Strasbourg, 19 January 2006
- ^ Chile Opts to Extradite Fujimori. World Press, 23 September 2007.
- ^ Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch World Report, 1992. 1991, p. 314.
- ^ García, Fujimori Top Candidates In Peru, Angus Reid Global Monitor (Angus Reid Consultants), 30 March 2005. Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ (Spanish) Estudio 293 – Barómetro – Lima Metropolitana y Callao – Sábado 19 y Domingo 20 de Noviembre de 2005, Grupo de Opinión Pública de la Universidad de Lima. Accessed 27 September 2006.
- ^ Peruvians Call for Fujimori's Extradition Angus Reid Global Monitor (Angus Reid Consultants), 12 May 2007, Accessed 19 May 2007.
- ^ 
- H.W. Wilson Company, Current Biography Yearbook, Volume 57, H.W. Wilson, 1996
- Biography and tenure by CIDOB Foundation (in Spanish)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Alberto Fujimori on Charlie Rose
- Alberto Fujimori at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about Alberto Fujimori in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Alberto Fujimori collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- The Fall of Fujimori on POV at PBS, 2006
- State of Fear a documentary of Peru's war on terror based on the findings of the Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission
|President of Peru
July 1990 – April 1992
|President of the Emergency
and National Reconstruction Government
April 1992 – July 1995
|President of Peru
July 1995 – November 2000