|Alan García in Brasilia, 9 November 2006.|
|President of Peru|
28 July 2006 – 28 July 2011
|Prime Minister||Jorge del Castillo
José Antonio Chang
|Vice President||Luis Giampietri
|Preceded by||Alejandro Toledo|
|Succeeded by||Ollanta Humala|
28 July 1985 – 28 July 1990
|Prime Minister||Luis Alva Castro
Luis Alberto Sánchez
|Luis Alberto Sánchez
Luis Alva Castro
|Preceded by||Fernando Belaúnde Terry|
|Succeeded by||Alberto Fujimori|
|Born||23 May 1949
|Political party||American Popular Revolutionary Alliance|
|Spouse(s)||Carla Buscaglia (First wife, divorced)
|Residence||Casa de Pizarro|
|Alma mater||Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
National University of San Marcos
Complutense University of Madrid
University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalaŋ ɡaˈβɾjel luðˈβiɣ ɣaɾˈsi.a ˈpeɾes]; born 23 May 1949) was the President of Peru, having won the2006 elections on 4 June 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. He is the leader of the APRA and the only party member ever to have served as President of Peru. He served a first term as President from 1985 to 1990. His first term was marked by a severe economic crisis, social unrest and violence. He ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency in 2001, losing in a run-off to Alejandro Toledo. During his second term Peru averaged seven percent GDP growth a year, held inflation below three percent annually and collated Peru's foreign exchange reserves at US$47 billion; however his tenureship also resulted in increased environment damage according to critics and increased social conflict, according to the national human rights ombudsman's office.
García won the elections on April 14, 1985 with 45% of the votes. Since he did not receive the 50% of the votes required to win the presidency, García had to enter a run-off against Alfonso Barrantes (the leftist former mayor of Lima) of the United Left party. Barrantes, however, retired and decided not to enter the run-off, saying he did not want to prolong the political uncertainty of the country. García was thus declared president on June 1 and officially took power on July 28, 1985. For the first time in its sixty-year history, the APRA party came to power in Peru. Aged only 36, García was dubbed "Latin America'sKennedy," becoming the region's youngest president at the time, and the second youngest president in Peruvian history (the youngest was Juan Crisostomo Torrico in 1842, aged 34).
Despite his initial popularity among Peruvian voters, García's term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% over the five years, thereby profoundly destabilising the Peruvian economy. Owing to such chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol ("new sun") in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion (1,000,000,000) old soles. During García's administration, the per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDPdropped 20%. By the end of his term, national reserves were negative $900 million.
According to studies of the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics and the United Nations Development Programme, around the start of his presidency, 41.6% of Peruvians lived in poverty. During his presidency, this percentage increased by 13% (to 55%) in 1991. García also made an attempt to nationalise the banking and insurance industries. He incurred the wrath of the International Monetary Fund and the financial community by unilaterally declaring a limit on debt repayment equal to 10% of the Gross National Product, thereby isolating Peru from the international financial markets.
The economic turbulence exacerbated social tensions in Peru and contributed in part to the rise of the violent rebel movement known as the Shining Path, which launched the internal conflict in Peru and began attacking electrical towers, causing a number of blackouts in Lima. The García administration unsuccessfully sought a military solution to the growing terrorism, allegedly committing human rights violations, which are still under investigation. These include the Accomarca massacre, where 47campesinos were gunned down by Peruvian armed forces in August 1985, the Cayara massacre (May 1988) in which some thirty people were killed and dozens disappeared, and the summary execution of more than 200 inmates during prison riots in Lurigancho, San Juan Bautista (El Frontón) and Santa Bárbara in 1986. According to an official inquiry, an estimated 1,600 forced disappearances took place during García's presidency. His own personal involvement in these events is not clear. García was allegedly tied to the paramilitary Rodrigo Franco Command, which is accused of carrying out political murders in Peru during García's presidency. A US declassified report, written in late 1987, said that García's party, APRA, and top government officials were running a paramilitary group, responsible for the attempted bombing of the El Diario newspaper, then linked to Shining Path, had sent people to train in North Korea and may have been involved in executions. According to investigative journalistLucy Komisar, the report made it clear that it believed that García was giving the orders.
García's presidency left the country with hyperinflation, isolated from the international financial community, with negative reserves of US$900 million, continuous subversive activities by the Shining Path, a great increase in poverty levels and a multi-million dollar investment in an electric train in Limathat was not finished during his first government, and is still under construction as of 2011. His critics claim the many poor decisions he took while in office created an environment that led to the rise of an authoritarian leader like Alberto Fujimori.
In order to keep him away from future elections, García was accused of multiple charges of corruption during Fujimori's government. Investigations were archived without verdict and the statute of limitations has expired.