|Alan García in Brasilia, 9 November 2006.|
|President of Peru|
28 July 2006 – 28 July 2011
|Prime Minister||Jorge del Castillo
José Antonio Chang
|Vice President||Luis Giampietri
|Preceded by||Alejandro Toledo|
|Succeeded by||Ollanta Humala|
28 July 1985 – 28 July 1990
|Prime Minister||Luis Alva Castro
Luis Alberto Sánchez
|Luis Alberto Sánchez
Luis Alva Castro
|Preceded by||Fernando Belaúnde Terry|
|Succeeded by||Alberto Fujimori|
|Born||23 May 1949
|Political party||American Popular Revolutionary Alliance|
|Spouse(s)||Carla Buscaglia (First wife, divorced)
|Residence||Casa de Pizarro|
|Alma mater||Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
National University of San Marcos
Complutense University of Madrid
University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez(Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalaŋ ɡaˈβɾjel luðˈβiɣ ɣaɾˈsi.a ˈpeɾes]; born 23 May 1949) was the President of Peru, having won the2006 elections on 4 June 2006 in a run-off against Union for Peru candidate Ollanta Humala. He is the leader of the APRAand the only party member ever to have served as President of Peru. He served a first term as President from 1985 to 1990. His first term was marked by a severe economic crisis, social unrest and violence. He ran unsuccessfully for the Presidency in 2001, losing in a run-off toAlejandro Toledo. During his second term Peru averaged seven percent GDP growth a year, held inflation below three percent annually and collated Peru'sforeign exchange reserves at US$47 billion; however his tenureship also resulted in increased environment damage according to critics and increased social conflict, according to the national human rights ombudsman's office.
On July 28, 2006, García was sworn in as the new president of Peru, after winning approximately 53% of the nationwide vote in the elections held on June 4. He had huge support in Lima and the northern coast, but did not get the votes of Humala's strongholds such as the southern region (mostly impoverished but including major cities as Cuzco and Arequipa) and the rain forest areas. A third of the voters said that voting for him was "voting for the lesser of two evils": although many Peruvians had a very negative impression of García after his first government, they were scared by rumours that Humala would create a government based on Fidel Castro's Cuba and would turn Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, into the virtual ruler of Peru, due to Chavez's patronage of Humala's party. Humala denied these rumours, but his conflicting statements about his government's vision and Chávez's strong campaigning for him created enough suspicions among voters to cost him the ballotage.
With 36 seats, APRA has the second largest bloc in the 120-seat unicameralCongress which was sworn in a couple of days before the President. With 45 seats, Humala's Union for Peru Party has the largest bloc, although it has divided itself up into three factions.
Following his victory García stated that he sought good relations with Venezuela and did not intend to start a movement in the region against Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. He stated that he would review a trade agreement with the US established by the Toledo administration before deciding to ratify the agreement. Although APRA's position towards the free trade agreement was qualified as ambiguous by their detractors, APRA had always maintained that they would approve the agreement with proper compensations for wheat, cotton and yellow corn producers. On June 28, one month before García was sworn in, his party gave 25 of the 79 votes (almost one third of the votes) that ratified the agreement in the Peruvian Congress, one month prior to the new legislature that will include the Union for Peru congressmen, who are opposed to the agreement with the USA. The new Congress will still include a majority favourable to the free trade pact. Peru now awaits the agreement to be voted in the United States Congress.
In his first speech as President, García said that he would appoint a Finance Minister who was neither "an orthodox market liberal" nor a person "excessively in favour of state intervention in the economy". The position of Prime Minister was given to Jorge Del Castillo, his long time collaborator. According to the BBC, in private interviews García had stated his interest in a possible future trade agreement with Brazil and considers himself "an admirer" of Brazilian President Lula da Silva.
In press conferences with the foreign press, García has acknowledged that the support Humala received in the election "could not be ignored". García, in a recognition of future domestic politics with a UPP controlled Congress, was quoted as saying "Mr. Humala is an important political figure, and a President should consult with different political factions". However, Mr. Humala said he wouldn't salute the winner personally, adding that "he and his party will constitute the principal opposition bloc, not to fight Mr. García, but to defend the interests of the State and watch the government".
President Chávez of Venezuela responded to García's comments on his show Aló Presidente by stating that it was García who owed him an apology saying "the only way relations between the two countries can be restored is if Peru's elected President [García] gives an explanation and offers an apology to the Venezuelan people. He started throwing stones". Chávez also questioned the legitimacy of the election, citing 1.2 million invalid ballots and a margin of victory of 600,000 votes, although he didn't offer evidence for his remarks.García, attending an invitation to meet Brazilian president Lula da Silva, responded to Chávez: "accept your defeat in silence. Don't ask me to apologize for something arising from interference and remarks that are unacceptable under international law."
On July 20, 2006 García named as Finance Minister Luis Carranza, a former executive at Spain-based Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria and Central Bank director and deputy finance chief from August 2004 to August 2005 in Alejandro Toledo'sgovernment. The appointment was welcomed by some detractors of García's fiscal policies during his first administration. But Mario Huamán Rivera, the President of Peru's largest trade union the Confederación General de Trabajadores del Perú(General Workers Confederation of Peru), has attacked the appointment stating that "it looks as though Alan García is not going to fulfil his promise to change economic policy".
On the day before his inauguration, García formally named his cabinet including former Secretary-General of the APRA party and re-elected Congressman Jorge del Castilloas Prime Minister, Luis Carranza as Minister of Finance and Economy, and José Antonio García Belaúnde as Foreign Affairs Minister. García was inaugurated as President of Peru on July 28, 2006.
During his campaign, García declared that he supported he death penalty for rapists of minors; he has repeated this stance while in office. He has even proposed a polemic law on the matter, which would modify the Criminal Code. Although the issue seemed to be stalled, García has widened the range of his proposal for the death penalty, by including terrorists in the list of those who could receive it.
García faced his first major political defeat of his second term in office on January 11, 2007 when his proposal to introduce the death penalty as a punishment for capturedShining Path rebels was rejected by Congress in a vote of 49 to 26. García had promised to introduce the death penalty for Shining Path rebels during the 2006 Presidential election. Following the defeat of the proposal, García suggested a national referendum on the issue but a referendum is expected to be blocked by Congress. Legislators who voted against the bill stated that it would be a breach of theAmerican Convention on Human Rights to which Peru is a signatory. Approximately 3000 supporters of the proposal marched in Lima holding up photos of victims of attacks by the Shining Path.
On June 5, 2009, President Alan García ordered Peruvian Police and military forces to stop Amazonian Indigenous protesters from blocking roads in the Bagua region. The natives had been demonstrating against the signing by Alan García of special decrees that allow foreign corporations to enter Indigenous lands for oil drilling, mining and logging. As a result of the protests, 10 native civilians and 24 policemen were killed. With several policemen, who had surrendered their weapons, being brutally slaughtered at "estacion 6". It has since been proved, however, that members of the main opposition (nationalist) party, were behind these protests. Eyewitnesses claim that the bodies of the murdered amazon Natives have been dumped into the rivers.
After being elected, in the months prior to his inauguration, García sought to heal the relationship with Chile, which was stressed due to the differences between the governments of Alejandro Toledo andRicardo Lagos and severely impaired by the former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori's extradition affair. García's intentions were well-received by Michelle Bachelet, President of Chile, as she and García met and struck some pre-agreements. These conversations eventually led to the final draft of a landmark economic agreement with Chile a month after García was sworn in.
On November 9, 2006, García signed 12 commercial agreements with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil, strengthening the relationship between the two countries. As part of the IIRSA program and continuing integration efforts -including the August 2006 negotiations between Petrobras and Petroperú-, these new agreements seek to further bilateral cooperation. García offered Peruvian hydropower to meet Brazil's growing energy needs, although further details were not disclosed.
García mended relations with President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela on December 9, 2006 during the second South American Community of Nations summit inCochabamba, Bolivia. García told the Peruvian broadcaster Radio Programas del Perúthat "the two of us are well-mannered and cordial people, so any kind of argument, any previously made statements, remain a closed chapter" referring to disputes between the two leaders during the 2006 Peruvian presidential election where Chavez supported García's opponent Ollanta Humala.
Council of Ministers
|President of the Council of Ministers||Rosario Fernández||Independent||March 2011 to date|
|Foreign Relations||José Antonio García Belaúnde||Independent||July 2006 to date|
|Defense||Jaime Thorne Leon||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Justice||Rosario Fernandez||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Foreign Commerce and Tourism||Eduardo Ferreyros Kuppers||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Interior||Miguel Angel Hidalgo Medina||Military - General||July 2009 to date|
|Education||Víctor Raul Díaz Chávez||Independent||March 2011 to date|
|Health||Oscar Ugarte Ubillús||Independent||October 2008 to date|
|Work and Employment||Manuela Esperanza García Cochagne||Independent||July 2009 to date|
|Agriculture||Rafael Quevedo Flores||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Transportation and Communications||Enrique Javier Cornejo Ramirez||APRA||July 2009 to date|
|Economy and Finance||Ismael Benavides Ferreyros||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Energy and Mining||Pedro Sánchez Gamarra||Independent||October 2008 to date|
|Production||Jorge Villasante Araníbar||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Women's Issues and Social Development||Virginia Borra Toledo de Jimenez||Independent||September 2010 to date|
|Housing, Construction and Sanitation||Ing. Juan Sarmiento Soto||APRA||September 2009 to date|
|Environment||Antonio Brack Egg||Independent||July 2008 to date|
|Culture||Juan Ossio Acuña||Independent||October 2010 to date|
During the second government of Garcia, Peru was ranked as Latin America's third-best country for business on the 2008 Latin Business Index from Latin Business Chronicle.
Alan García is the author of several books on the Peruvian reality and Latin America. Most of them may be found in the National Library of Peru. His published works include the following:
- 1988 A la inmensa mayoría: discursos
- 1989 El futuro diferente
- 1989 El desarme financiero: pueblo y deuda en América Latina
- 1990 La revolución regional
- 1991 La defensa de Alan García
- 1992 El nuevo totalitarismo
- 1994 El mundo de Machiavello
- 1997 La falsa modernidad
- 1997 Siete tesis erróneas del neoliberalismo en América Latina
- 1999 Mi Gobierno hizo la regionalización
- 2000 La década infame: deuda externa 1990–1999
- 2003 Modernidad y política en el siglo XXI: globalización con justicia social
- 2005 Sierra Exportadora - Empleo, Modernidad y Justicia en Los Andes
- ^ García wins to become Peru president al-Jazeera, June 5, 2006
- ^ Perú, Atlas Internet (Spanish)
- ^ a b Lucy Komisar, Peru: US Gov’t Document Links García to 1980s Death Squads, Inter Press Service, December 5, 2007.
- ^ "Peru court lifts García corruption charge" January 19, 2001 BBC
- ^ Alan García reta a Chávez a polemizar por CNN, El Universal, 28 April 2006 (Spanish)
- ^ Alan García in Dispute with Hugo Chávez, University of British Columbia—Peru Elections 2006, April 28, 2006
- ^ "Peru's García Pledges to Renew IMF Loan Agreement (Update2)",Bloomberg, May 31, 2006
- ^ "IMF says "impressed" with Peru's García's vision", June 14, 2006 (Reuters).
- ^ Exit Poll Results: Alan García in First Place University of British Columbia—Peru Elections 2006, June 4, 2006.
- ^ a b "García desestima roces con Chávez" June 6, 2006 BBC Mundo.
- ^ Humala says he won't give García truce, El Comercio, June 8, 2006.
- ^ "Peru President-Elect García Owes Venezuela Apology, Chavez Says", June 11, 2006 Bloomberg
- ^ "Peru's García refuses to apologize to Chavez", June 13, 2006 Reuters
- ^ "Peru's García cozies up to Ecuador, Venezuela", December 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune
- ^ "García and Hugo Chavez set differences aside", December 9, 2006 Living in Peru
- ^ "García Names Carranza Peru's Next Finance Minister" July 20, 2006 Bloomberg
- ^ Hal Weitzman, "García's choice of finance minister cheered" July 22, 2006 Financial Times
- ^ "Alan García Announces Peruvian Staff" July 28, 2006 Prensa Latina
- ^ Tyler Bridges, "Alan García inaugurated as president of Peru"July 28, 2006 The Miami Herald
- ^ "Alan García envía al Congreso propuesta para pena de muerte"September 21, 2006 Los Tiempos
- ^ Cecilia Rosales Ferreyros, "García plantea volver a aplicar pena de muerte" August 9, 2006 El Comercio
- ^ "Peru's President in favor of death penalty for terrorists" November 2, 2006 Living In Peru
- ^ "Alan García: guerra avisada, señores, no mata gente"November 2, 2006 El Comercio
- ^ "Presidente García insiste en aplicar la pena de muerte" January 19, 2007 El Comercio
- ^ Protesters Gird for Long Fight Over Opening Peru’s Amazonhttp://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/12/world/americas/12peru.html?scp=3&sq=Bagua&st=cse
- ^ Native clash with armed police in Peruhttp://www.amazonwatch.org/newsroom/view_news.php?id=1859
- ^ Peruvian Police Accused of Massacring Indigenous Protesters in Amazon Junglehttp://www.democracynow.org/2009/6/8/peruvian_police_accused_of_massacring_indigenous
- ^ "Will Chile send Fujimori to Peru?" January 5, 2006 The Economist
- ^ "Alan García se reunió con Bachelet" June 23, 2006 (BBC).
- ^ Noriega, Carlos "Del odio al amor hay sólo un paso" June 24, 2006Página 12
- ^ "Chile y Perú firman primer TLC entre países sudamericanos"August 22, 2006 Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Chile
- ^ "Perú y Chile suscriben un 'histórico' acuerdo comercial"August 24, 2006 La Última
- ^ "García: Peru and Brazil trust in the power of its people" November 9, 2006 Living in Peru
- ^ "Brazil, Peru sign 12 cooperation agreements" November 10, 2006People's Daily
- ^ "Peru - Agreement with state companies from Peru" Petrobras - Investor News
- ^ Andrade, Juliana "Após encontro, Lula e García firman acordos de cooperação bilateral" November 9, 2006 Agência Brasil
- ^ Clendenning, Alan "Peru president offers energy to Brazil" November 10, 2006 Business Week
- ^ "Peru's García cozies up to Ecuador, Venezuela" December 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune
- ^ "Peru's Outlook" June 23, 2006 (Latin Business Chronicle).
- ^ "Special Report" December 23, 2008 (Latin Business Chronicle) by Joachim Bamrud.
- Office of the President of the Republic of Peru Official Site
- (Spanish) APRA's official site
- Latin Business Chronicle Leader of the Year 2008: Alan García
- (Spanish) Extended biography by CIDOB Foundation
- Peru Election 2006: Alan García The University of British Columbia
- "Exiled García back in Peru", BBC News Online, 28 January 2001
- cverdad.org (A brief report made by the Peruvian Commission of Truth involving Alan García)
- Extract from article discussing García's 2006 election victory 23 June 2006
- Welcome to Washington, Mr. Peruvian President: Alan García Perez’s Regional Foreign Policy Analysis by the Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 5 October 2006.
Fernando Belaúnde Terry
|President of Peru
|President of Peru
|Party political offices|
Jorge del Castillo
|General Secretary of theAmerican Popular Revolutionary Alliance