miércoles, 3 de noviembre de 2010
Chachapoyas culture (IX to XV century)
The Chachapoyas developed an important culture from the ninth century AD until they were invaded by the Incas in the north-east of the country.
Imposing stone buildings built on top of mountains among which the fortress of Kuelap, a large fortified city still do not know much.
Chachapoyas culture developed in the northern jungle of Peru. It was a village of farmers and warriors, whose capital was the fortified citadel of Kuelap, the current Amazonas region.
It was a civilization of great architects who built cities and tombs in the inaccessible areas of the northern jungle. It's famous El Gran Pajaten, a town in the mountains of the department of San Martín. In the Lake of the Mummies (Amazonas) belong impressive anthropomorphic sarcophagi. Also excelled in wood carving, as shown may be mentioned The Pinchudos, anthropomorphic idols show large phalluses, associated with fertility and life.
The Chachapoyas were conquered by the Incas after several years of fighting. His great strengths and walls were allowed proplongada resistance, and finally by the emperor underwent Cusco Tupac Yupanqui around 1480.
When the Spanish arrived the chiefs allied themselves Chachapoyanos Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Inca Empire.
Chachapoyas Organization and Social Policy
The unit of social organization consisted of large provinces each controlled by a powerful chief and totally independent. Were small kingdoms or lordships mainly settled along the river Utcubamba. All had the same language, same customs and ways of growing and very occasionally got together for some religious ceremonies or to an attack by an enemy town, while maintaining its autonomy.
According to chronicles told by Pedro Cieza de Leon, the Chachapoyas were the white and graceful of all the inhabitants of Peru. They wore clothes of wool and were in their heads about "llaüt" as a sign of their origin. After its annexation to the Inca adopted the customs imposed by the Incas.
The social organization was based on domestic production and the subsistence agricultural storage facilities. Within the Chachapoyas region, developed the exchange of food (such as salt) and services based on social relations where people come together in a network.
Chachapoyas Architecture and Pottery
The central area of the development of the Chachapoyas culture was the basin Utcubamba. There we find the architectural de Olano, Yalape, Purunllacta or "Monte Peruvia" Congon (renamed Great Vilaya), Vira Vira, Pajatén and others. But Cuélap is undoubtedly the greatest monument of nearly 600 meters long walls that reach 20 meters high.
Residential buildings and monuments are circular with high bases, ledges of boulders and flat stones protruding above the surface of the bases. They have ramps or stairs, directed toward the entrance.
The Chachapoyas developed a common symbolic language with geometric triangles, diamonds, serpentine and square ornaments, displayed on the friezes of circular stone dwellings. These symbols were ethnic and social value, and served to demonstrate the strength of local identity, maintained through the Inca period.
Funerary architecture also characterizes the Chachapoyas culture, and includes two types of graves: the sarcophagus and mausoleum. The sarcophagus is an evolution of the bundle that is expressed in Andean and coastal areas of Tiahuanaco-Huari times.
Possible origins of the Chachapoyas
Some theories claim that the descendants of immigrants Chachapoyas culturally Andean Cordillera, which changed its ancient culture in the new environment, taking some traditions of the people of Amazonian origin. Transformed the forest landscape at barren as they were pillaging the forests, and as a result of annual burning to which submitted their land.
The Chachapoyas people or Sachapcollas (residents of forested areas) was composed of various ethnic kin, who traveled through the territory that extends from north to south (about 300 km.) From the Marañón in the area and the Bagua Basin south to Abiseo.
It was certainly one of the greatest civilizations that had the Peru
Publicado por carlos en 12:10