miércoles, 10 de noviembre de 2010
Historical period pre-Columbian America
• Established 1200 BC C.
• Dissolution 500 a. C
Capital: Chavin de Huantar
It was located in the department of Ancash, Peru
Chavin culture was a mixed civilization of ancient Peru established around the astronomical and religious center of Chavin de Huantar. This culture spread throughout much of the Central Andes between ca. 800 and 200 a. C. February 1
Peruvian archaeologist Julio César Tello (1880-1947) identified it as "parent culture of Peru", but later discovered Caral culture, much earlier. It is the first time of unification of cultures in the Peruvian Andes. Also called the formative stage of the history of Peru, so is the First Horizon (or Early Horizon) of Ancient Peru.
Highlighted in the domain of the stone used in construction and sculpture.
Artistic manifestations were:
a) The Sculpture:
Practiced stone sculpture, the best known are the Raimondi Stela, the Monolithic Lanzón the Tello Obelisk (alligator hermaphrodite) and Stone Heads (guarduanes the Chavin Temple)
b) The Ceramics
Was monochrome, were either in black or brown or gray color, its shape was globular stirrup and was incisive, is represented images of gods and animals.
Chavin was the capital of the Chavin culture. It is an archaeological site located in the District of Chavin de Huantar, province of Huari, Ancash department. It is 462 kilometers northeast of Lima, Peru. The site has an elevation of 3,177 meters above sea level in Conchucos alley on the eastern flank of the Cordillera Blanca. The city's location at the confluence of the rivers and Mosna Huacheksa in the main basin of Rio Maranon, between the coast and the jungle, made him an ideal location for the collection and trade of goods.
The building has a complex network of roads and stone interior galleries lit only by shafts of light that penetrate through strategically placed ducts. Inside you can still see the Lanzón Monolithic, carved stone of 5.53 m. high in the apparently observed and anthropomorphic gods, and the Heads, sentinel species embedded in the walls of the building. On January 17, 1945, a flood covered and damaged structures, which were partially excavated from 1966. Recent investigations, excavations at the center of the Plaza Square gave evidence of ceremonial burial permits to find the old riverbed Mosna, which means that the channel of it, was diverted to allow construction of this square.
The current issue presents Chavin is the result of a long history of construction and remodeling while in use, and reuse and destruction since it was abandoned around 200 BC. For a better understanding and recognition have been named individually to various pyramids, seats, covers and steps that are part of this archaeological site and, as noted, were not used all at one time. The image can be seen below illustrates the location of each of the areas and buildings that currently can be seen at Chavin de Huantar
The current issue presents Chavin is the result of a long history of construction and remodeling while in use, and reuse and destruction since it was abandoned around 200 BC. For a better understanding and recognition have been named individually to various pyramids, seats, covers and steps that are part of this archaeological site and, as noted, were not used all at one time. The image can be seen below illustrates the location of each of the areas and buildings that currently can be seen at Chavin de Huantar.
Is now considered that there was an expansion of the Chavin culture, but that area of influence is due to business contacts between Chavin and the territories in which displayed characteristics similar to that culture. The Chavin establish that preporderancia thanks to its oracle. Important evidence is that in the city of Chavin de Huantar offerings have emerged come from an area that includes Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, Ancash, Lima and Huanuco, with materials that apparently came from the shores of Guayas and Ica, Huancavelica and Ayacucho.
In all these territories are also evidence of contact with Chavin, which is expressed in the best known, at a time when there was a kind of "fashion" chavin, expressed in the fact that art is locally altered by the inclusion of a number of reasons and people who have a mature culture chavin representation itself. That happens almost everywhere, between 800 and 500 a. C. Of course, before that time, for over a millennium, the peoples of that territory had developed their own ways of doing things in a long training period, known as "initial" and even earlier, during the Archaic period.
Art in Stone
All visitors and scholars of this website have admired the great number and beauty of carved stone figures that adorn the various areas of this wonderful temple. The characteristics of these representations are unique to this site and its period (the Early Horizon, between 800 BC to 200 AD) and according to it (the carved stones) has characterized the art of the Chavin culture. One of the first and most important scholars of Chavin art was the American archaeologist John H. Rowe, who analyzed the main sculpture of the site identifying the main characteristics that compared with the sequence Paracas pottery style in the valley of Ica (contemporary Chavín on the southern coast of Peru), developed a chronological sequence of this art, divided into appointed as four phases: AB, C, D and EF. Rowe says that art is primarily representative Chavín and burdened with conventions governing style, which were highly respected by those who carried out this art because it fulfilled and did not stray from their norms. The main convention were: symmetry, repetition, the module width and the simplification of reasons to combinations of straight lines, curves and spirals (Rowe 1972). Another key feature is the representation of round eyes, eyes bulging with exorbitant (eccentric) and the use of large tusks. The most frequent representations of birds (like eagles and hawks), cats and snakes with human attributes and vice versa. At Chavin de Huantar we can see, today many examples of stone carving art in unique pieces that we call Estela Raimondi, Tello Obelisk, Lanzón Monolithic, The Medusa and others such as the Corniche of the Falcons, the columns of the main entrance New Temple, the engraved stones of the sunken circular plaza and "Stone Heads", sculptures of human heads with divine attributes which were nailed as a ledge on the New Temple.
The Old Temple
Chavín was not built in a moment. Has a long history of expansions and renovations. The oldest pyramid is called the Old Temple (850 BC) and housed inside the main oracle that time: "God Smiling", represented in the sculpture called Monolithic Lanzón. What are the Old Temple 3 pyramids together and seen from the air forming a letter "U". This design style temples originated centuries ago on the coast of Peru, in places like Florida and Garagay in the valley of Rimac and Huaca de Los Reyes in the Moche valley. Each of the parts that make up the Old Temple had a role in the ceremonies that were held there. Central Pyramid of the Old Temple was built with carved stone walls together with mud. The interior spaces were filled with dirt and stones out of work. Within this pyramid was built narrow passages that resemble underground passages, so they have called "galleries." In the Old Temple, the most important is the Lanzón Gallery, where the idol called "Monolithic Lanzón, one of the main icons for Chavín. This stone is carved the image of the god of underworld, also called "The Smiling God" responsible for the fertility of the land and seasons. The way it was drawn "God Smile" features the art of the Chavin. Located between the arms of the Old Temple, the Chavin built a circular plaza, below ground level, sunken, as opposed to the main pyramid, which is elevated above ground level. At the center of this plaza was nailed to the other main idol of Chavín, the "Tello Obelisk" (Makowski 1997). The sunken circular plaza has two staircases, located on opposite sides, through which you can access inside. The stone walls were plated with highly polished and decorated with images of mythical beings. These images carved on the stones covering the wall of the sunken circular plaza representing a procession of mythical beings walking toward the stairway leading to the main pyramid, where the pike. Below them there is another procession carved in stone, but cats who follow the same direction as the mythical beings. The Tello Obelisk is another major art sculptures representative of this culture is a metaphor for the universe as understood by the Chavin. It was discovered by the farmer Don Trinidad in 1908. Years later studied by the archaeologist Julio C. Tello who took his name. On the four sides of this obelisk are carved the designs of 2 lizards: male and female, who live each in one half of the universe. They express their power on earth through couriers, such as the jaguar and the eagle. On one side of the sunken circular plaza is the Gallery of Gifts is a long underground passage with 9 campuses in one side where they were deposited on the ground, lots of broken ceramic vessels mixed with animal remains as offering. On the opposite side of the sunken circular plaza is the Gallery of the shells, inside which were deposited mainly shells of large snails (of the species Strombus sp.), Some of them beautifully decorated. The "Old Temple" was designed with a symbolic representation of the universe Chavin (Makowski 1997). It is divided in 2 by an imaginary line running from "Lanzón" to "Tello Obelisk" by dividing the whole into equal parts. In the Old Temple design side arms represent the two forces, opposite and complementary, who ruled the cosmos is that era. The space between the arms, where are the Central Pyramid and the sunken circular plaza, representing the world in which we live and where these two cosmic forces interact (Makowski 1997). Inside the main pyramid of the Old Temple main gallery (the Gallery of Lanzón) has a cross and symbolically divided into 4 to this building. In the center of the cross is nailed to the Lanzon, symbolizing the center, the axis on which turns the universe (Makowski 1997). The imaginary line that divides evenly divide the Old Temple also the sunken circular plaza. In each of the halves are 56 images carved in stone arranged in 2 rows, as already mentioned, which seem to march from a ladder to the other in the direction of the main pyramid. Richard L. Burger, Chavín scholar archaeologist at this time we built a bridge over the river and a wall Wachecsa controlled the income from the bottom of the valley. The people of Chavín were divided into two, one, about the Old Temple and others, across the bridge.
The New Temple
Right Arm of the Old Temple was built an extension. There was a change in progress. For the year 390 BC (approximately) changes in Chavín are total, building a new temple, called "New Temple", alongside the above, the "Old Temple" .. Although the "New Temple" is different in several aspects of the "Old Temple", shared how "U" of the temple and the same geographical orientation. The Pyramid Temple Central New cube-shaped, with stone walls and dimensions that impress visitors (approximately 70 meters square and 10 meters high) it is known by the nickname "The Castle". Were used in its construction stones like granite exotic origin white or black limestone which neatly polished rectangular shaped them. Within the Central Pyramid is the largest number of galleries that have been found on this site. Each has its own point of entry. Still do not know the exact role they had. At the center of the central pyramid, from the main facade, is the home to its unique design does not lead into the building, but with side stairs leading to the top of it. This portal is formed mainly by 2 columns and a lintel on which are carved the emblematic images of the pantheon Chavín. The Foursquare Sunken Plaza, located off the main pyramid, keeps an exact alignment with the cover of the New Temple. Four steps (one per side) connect the exterior with the interior. The four side walls are clad with rows of polished stone blocks. On one of these blocks has carved the image of a mythical being called by the archaeologists of today as "Medusa", but in reality is the representation of the era of the New Temple of the mythical being carved in the Old Temple Lanzón . The "Stone Heads" are stone sculptures representing human heads but with attributes of the gods Chavín were originally nailed to the top of the outer wall of the New Temple. Today there is only one of them in their original location. Raimondi Stela is a large block of stone has a carved faces representing the main deity of the Chavin in the era of the New Temple. Was found by the Italian scholar Antonio Raimondi, the mid-nineteenth century home of Timothy Evans, a local farmer. This sculpture depicts the call God of Staffs, who is the center of everything, who turns the universe. From this time the "god of Staffs" will be represented at different times and places for over 2000 years .. During the time of the New Temple "axis ceremonial" retains its old direction, but a few yards south divide, too, the new temple in equal parts. One of the most notorious places where this duality is on the cover of the main pyramid of the New Temple. At the time of the New Temple, the Temple of Chavin was the center of the known world, receiving pilgrims from the remotest places of ancient Peru.
Source: wikipedia and http://wiki.sumaqperu.com/es/Cultura_Chavín
Publicado por carlos en 14:01