miércoles, 3 de noviembre de 2010
La cultura moche o mochica
Moche or Mochica culture is a culture of ancient Peru that developed between 300 BC C. and 700 d. C.
The discovery of the royal tomb at Sipan Sipan and Huaca El Brujo research in the tombs of Sicán and Huaca de la Luna, produced a revival of global interest in the lost civilizations of northern Peru, which recognize the Moche , one of the most influential people in pre-Hispanic America.
Moche or Mochica culture emerged and developed in the long and narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru, between I and VII, weakening from the eighth century. This ceremonial area was the epicenter of their culture that, at its height, included the present territories of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad and Ancash, to the port of Huarmey.
Moche society was established in what marked hierarchies, failing to have developed some kind of writing reflected in its abundant production of ceramics or "huacos." The pyramid of this theocratic society was headed by the Lords, earthly and religious powers. The priests formed a second layer could be composed of women priests, like the Chimu. The third stratum was the people, who conducted the field work and crafts. This division of society into castes, governed by chiefs or priests of the different valleys, joined under a single command only in later periods.
The Moche were obviously warriors, as shown by the fight scenes in the decorations of the vessels and individual sculptural representations. Warriors enjoyed a special status and formed small professional armies.
To the Mochica, lovers of life, death was not the end. The men continued to live in another area of the world with their own obligations or privileges, which led to burial grounds with supplies and goods. Burials and reflected the role and place of each man within his society. Moche tombs have furnished much richer than those of earlier periods and the dead lie again on the back. The major characters are buried along with dozens of jars, bottles, jars, trays and containers with relief decorations that represent fruits, animals, men and gods. The corpses are precious earrings, turquoise mosaics inlaid in gold, gold beads and medallions hollow human faces.
Metallurgy and Agriculture
The Mochica innovated technology and metal production with intensive use of copper for the manufacture of ornaments, weapons and tools. His most important achievement was the brown metal with a sophisticated technique that gets the same results as the electrolyte system invented in Europe until the late eighteenth century. The goldsmiths had learned to smelt gold gilding on the molds and copper objects. Completely dominated the copper-gold alloy and came to make gold and silver jewelry soldiers. There were also copper utensils, while the bronze was not discovered until later.
The Andes mountain range through its own territory and divides it into three quite distinct regions: coastal, mountain and forest, each with its own flora and fauna. Realistic Mochica pottery has revealed both the production of food crops like corn, which occupied most of the cultivable area then, beans, lima beans, potatoes, cassava and sweet potatoes, as the dominant fauna, composed of gannets , foxes, pumas and other animals that mostly remain to this day. Systems through large-scale irrigation, these people had turned desert into fertile land. There were more than thirty varieties of indigenous crops, including snuff and coca.
In terms of architecture, building the great pyramids of the Moche period was possible only through a joint working very well directed, using prisoners of war and the mass of the subjects of the chief priests. Both the Huaca del Sol and the Huaca de la Luna, formed a religious and administrative complex, located on the slopes of Cerro Blanco, the most revered of the Moche.
The Step Pyramid, called Huaca del Sol "is one of the most impressive buildings around the pre-Columbian Peru. It is assumed that the building erected on a terrace step, had an area of over 55 thousand square meters and 40 meters high and, in its construction, we used approximately 140 million bricks rectangular, not subject to cooking. The shape of the Huaca de la Luna, built on a rocky outcrop of the Cerro Blanco and in front of the Huaca del Sol, occupies an area roughly 290 by 210 square meters and consists of several ceremonial platforms and patios. Inside there were found remains of domestic tasks, unlike the Huaca del Sol, which demonstrates the ceremonial nature of its construction. In 1995, Canadian archaeologist Steve Bourget, unearthed the bodies of 42 young brutally slaughtered, a finding that was interpreted as a mass killing linked to El Niño.
The Mochica beat the desert through artificial irrigation, canals diverting water from rivers that descend from the Andes. Its hydraulic engineering have allowed agricultural surpluses and a strong economy, supplemented by seafood, formed the basis of its development.
The best known cultural heritage is the Mochica ceramics, typically placed as offerings to the dead. Men, gods, animals, plants and complex scenes were represented by their artists in the form of pictures or pottery sculptures decorated with a brush.
The Moche ceramics developed in two main areas: painting and sculpture, which are distinguished by their realism and their ability in drawing. The Moche ceramics, had a broad knowledge and skills in the use of fine paste and the control of oxidation in the process of burning. Modeling the walls of their ceremonial vessels making thin, reflecting different sculptural forms: animals, mythological figures and scenes of everyday life. Used two colors, painting figures, reddish brown with a very thin brush on a layer of color
The Economic of the Mochica culture
"He had the scenario of the long, narrow strip of desert on the north coast of Peru where the remains of their irrigation works that testify to its highest artistic development, technological and complex organization.
The Mochica beat the desert by artificial irrigation channels to divert water from rivers that descend from the Andes, they built canals (Wachaques) shown as notable works of hydraulic engineering, such as Ascope and Summit. Its hydraulic engineering have allowed agricultural surpluses and a strong economy, supplemented by seafood, formed the basis of its enormous development.
- The Moche developed a planned agriculture
- Aqueduct Mochica: Chicama - Ascope - dam san jose
"They used manure to fertilize their land (the guano was the most important fertilizer, which drew from the Chincha Islands with their horses of reeds)
"The Fishing: The Moche were skilled fishermen, they entered the sea with the legendary horses of reeds, which already had about three thousand years old.
Publicado por carlos en 12:50