Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre
|Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre|
|President of the Constitutional Assembly|
|Born||22 February 1895
|Died||2 August 1979 (aged 84)
|Political party||American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA)|
Haya de la Torre was born in the northern Peruvian city of Trujillo. In 1913, he enrolled in theUniversidad Nacional de Trujillo to study literature, where he met and forged a solid friendship with the Peruvian poet César Vallejo. He then enrolled in theNational University of San Marcos in Lima.
He was instrumental in bringing the ideas of the Argentine University Reform movement (La Reforma) to San Marcos, and administrative reforms were instituted in 1919. Part of the reform movement was university extension programs, through which the university students hoped to reach the working classes.
To that end, Haya de la Torre founded the Universidades Populares Gonzalez Prada, night schools for workers, which according to some historians formed the foundation for the Partido Aprista Peruano.
As a young man Haya also taught at the Colegio Anglo-Peruano (now Colegio San Andres), a school operated by the Free Church of Scotland in Lima. He was deeply influenced by the headmaster of the school, John A. Mackay, a Free Church missionary.
In 1923 Haya de la Torre was exiled by the government of Augusto B. Leguía. On 7 May 1924, while in Mexico City, Haya de la Torre founded the APRA and the pan-Latin American movement known as Aprismo. He returned to Peru in 1931 to run for President.
That year, he was imprisoned for 15 months and his party was outlawed until 1934 and then also from 1935 to 1945. In 1945, José Luis Bustamante y Rivero became president with APRA's support. Then, in 1948, some party dissidents revolted in Callao and APRA was again outlawed.
In November of that year, Manuel Odría seized power and forced Haya de la Torre to seek asylum in the Colombian embassy in Lima where he remained for five years. The International Court of Justice at the Hague considered his case. Haya de la Torre was able to return to Peru in 1954 and his party was again legalized in 1956.
However, he continued to live mostly abroad until 1962. He ran for president again, obtaining victory by a slim margin but not enough to be constitutionally elected. Then, a military juntaannulled the elections. There were new elections in 1963, but Haya was defeated in the vote.
Haya de la Torre advocated a system of Latin American (or, to use his preferred term, Indo-American) solutions to Latin American problems. He called upon the region to reject both U.S.imperialism and Soviet communism.
He favored universal democracy, equal rights and respect for indigenous populations, andsocialist economic policies such as agrarian reform, based on the concept of communal land ownership, and state control of industry.
Haya de la Torre advocated the overthrow of the land-owning oligarchies that had ruled Peru since colonial days, replacing them with an idealistic socialist elite. However, in exchange for attaining legal status for the party, he made opportunistic ideological swings to the right, and by the 1950s it had jettisoned most of its progressive, socialist ideals.
In addition, Haya de la Torre's single-handed dominance APRA resulted in pronounced sectarian and hierarchical traits, resulted in an exodus of some of APRA's most talented young leaders to the Marxist left.
The lack of love interests in Haya de la Torre's life was sometimes remarked upon. Haya de la Torre once stated to APRA members: El APRA es mi mujer y ustedes son mis hijos ("The Apra is my wife and you [the members] are my children"). However, rumours of homosexuality were scattered around the country during and after his life by his political enemies, generally in a crudely homophobic fashion.
Haya de la Torre clearly liked the company of young men. André Coyné, a well-respected French literary critic who happened to be both a good friend of Haya's and the loyal lover and supporter of the Peruvian expatriate poet César Moro, states that Haya sometimes went to "bares de muchachos" (literally "young men's bars") with him, but that he doesn't know whether Haya "ejercía" (i.e., practiced homosexuality) . In the end, Haya has never been found to have had any sexual partners, whether male or female. His supporters have sometimes claimed he had female lovers, but this has never been confirmed.
Haya's first and middle given names are Víctor Raúl. Combined, it is a popular boys' name among APRA members or sympathizers.
|“||¡Ni con Washington ni con Moscú! ("Neither with Washington, nor with Moscow!")||”|
- ^ John Mackay Metzger, The Hand and the Road: The Life and Times of John A. Mackay (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2010), 121-122
- ^ Llámalo amor, si quieres, Toño Angulo Daneri. Lima, Aguilar, 2004
- Robert J. Alexander, “Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre and ‘Indo-America,’” in Prophets of the Revolution: Profiles of Latin American Leaders (New York: Macmillan Company: 1962), 75-108.
- Germán Arciniegas, “The Military vs. Aprismo in Peru,” in The State of Latin America (New York: Knopf, 1952), 79-94.
- John A. Mackay, The Other Spanish Christ (New York: Macmillan, 1932), 193-198.
- Paul E. Sigmund, ed., Models of Political Change in Latin America (New York: Praeger, 1970), 180-187.
- “Víctor Haya de la Torre Is Dead; Elder Statesman of Peru Was 84,” Obituary (AP), New York Times, August 4, 1979, 24.
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